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Open AccessArticle

Control of Arms of Au Stars Size and its Dependent Cytotoxicity and Photosensitizer Effects in Photothermal Anticancer Therapy

1
Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, PL-31-342 Krakow, Poland
2
Department of Clinical Immunology, Institute of Pediatrics, Jagiellonian University Medical College, PL-30-663 Krakow, Poland
3
Institute of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials, Silesian University of Technology, Konarskiego 18A, 44100 Gliwice, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5011; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205011
Received: 17 September 2019 / Revised: 28 September 2019 / Accepted: 9 October 2019 / Published: 10 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Materials Science)
Gold nanostars (AuS NPs) are a very attractive nanomaterial, which is characterized by high effective transduction of the electromagnetic radiation into heat energy. Therefore, AuS NPs can be used as photosensitizers in photothermal therapy (PTT). However, understanding the photothermal conversion efficiency in nanostars is very important to select the most appropriate shape and size of AuS NPs. Therefore, in this article, the synthesis of AuS NPs with different lengths of star arms for potential application in PTT was investigated. Moreover, the formation mechanism of these AuS NPs depending on the reducer concentration is proposed. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with selected area diffraction (SEAD) and X-ray diffraction (X-Ray) showed that all the obtained AuS NPs are crystalline and have cores with similar values of the diagonal (parameter d), from 140 nm to 146 nm. However, the widths of the star arm edges (parameter c) and the lengths of the arms (parameter a) vary between 3.75 nm and 193 nm for AuS1 NPs to 6.25 nm and 356 nm for AuS4 NPs. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectra revealed that, with increasing edge widths and lengths of the star arms, the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak is shifted to the higher wavelengths, from 640 nm for AuS1 NPs to 770 nm for AuS4 NPs. Moreover, the increase of temperature in the AuS NPs solutions as well as the values of calculated photothermal efficiency grew with the elongation of the star arms. The potential application of AuS NPs in the PTT showed that the highest decrease of viability, around 75%, of cells cultured with AuS NPs and irradiated by lasers was noticed for AuS4 NPs with the longest arms, while the smallest changes were visible for gold nanostars with the shortest arms. The present study shows that photothermal properties of AuS NPs depend on edge widths and lengths of the star arms and the values of photothermal efficiency are higher with the increase of the arm lengths, which is correlated with the reducer concentration. View Full-Text
Keywords: gold nanostars; phototherapy; photosensitizer; cancer; star arms; synthesis mechanism gold nanostars; phototherapy; photosensitizer; cancer; star arms; synthesis mechanism
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Depciuch, J.; Stec, M.; Maximenko, A.; Pawlyta, M.; Baran, J.; Parlinska-Wojtan, M. Control of Arms of Au Stars Size and its Dependent Cytotoxicity and Photosensitizer Effects in Photothermal Anticancer Therapy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 5011.

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