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Open AccessReview

Facets of Theiler’s Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus-Induced Diseases: An Update

1
Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Bünteweg 17, 30559 Hannover, Germany
2
Center for System Neuroscience, 30559 Hannover, Germany
3
Department of Pharmacology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Bünteweg 17, 30559 Hannover, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(2), 448; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20020448
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 18 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV), a naturally occurring, enteric pathogen of mice is a Cardiovirus of the Picornaviridae family. Low neurovirulent TMEV strains such as BeAn cause a severe demyelinating disease in susceptible SJL mice following intracerebral infection. Furthermore, TMEV infections of C57BL/6 mice cause acute polioencephalitis initiating a process of epileptogenesis that results in spontaneous recurrent epileptic seizures in approximately 50% of affected mice. Moreover, C3H mice develop cardiac lesions after an intraperitoneal high-dose application of TMEV. Consequently, TMEV-induced diseases are widely used as animal models for multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, and myocarditis. The present review summarizes morphological lesions and pathogenic mechanisms triggered by TMEV with a special focus on the development of hippocampal degeneration and seizures in C57BL/6 mice as well as demyelination in the spinal cord in SJL mice. Furthermore, a detailed description of innate and adaptive immune responses is given. TMEV studies provide novel insights into the complexity of organ- and mouse strain-specific immunopathology and help to identify factors critical for virus persistence. View Full-Text
Keywords: adaptive immune response; animal model; demyelination; epilepsy; innate immune response; multiple sclerosis; myocarditis; seizures; Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus adaptive immune response; animal model; demyelination; epilepsy; innate immune response; multiple sclerosis; myocarditis; seizures; Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus
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Gerhauser, I.; Hansmann, F.; Ciurkiewicz, M.; Löscher, W.; Beineke, A. Facets of Theiler’s Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus-Induced Diseases: An Update. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 448.

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