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Review

Gut-Liver Axis, Gut Microbiota, and Its Modulation in the Management of Liver Diseases: A Review of the Literature

1
Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
2
Hospital for Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Clinical Center of Serbia, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
3
Faculty of Medicine, Universisty of Belgrade; Institute of Medical Physiology “Rihard Burijan”, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
4
Clinic for Digestive Surgery, Clinical Center of Serbia, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
5
Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, 50134 Florence, Italy
6
Department of Biomedicine, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Careggi (AOUC), 50134 Florence, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(2), 395; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20020395
Received: 22 December 2018 / Revised: 13 January 2019 / Accepted: 14 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
The rapid scientific interest in gut microbiota (GM) has coincided with a global increase in the prevalence of infectious and non-infectivous liver diseases. GM, which is also called “the new virtual metabolic organ”, makes axis with a number of extraintestinal organs, such as kidneys, brain, cardiovascular, and the bone system. The gut-liver axis has attracted greater attention in recent years. GM communication is bi-directional and involves endocrine and immunological mechanisms. In this way, gut-dysbiosis and composition of “ancient” microbiota could be linked to pathogenesis of numerous chronic liver diseases such as chronic hepatitis B (CHB), chronic hepatitis C (CHC), alcoholic liver disease (ALD), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), development of liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this paper, we discuss the current evidence supporting a GM role in the management of different chronic liver diseases and potential new therapeutic GM targets, like fecal transplantation, antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics, and symbiotics. We conclude that population-level shifts in GM could play a regulatory role in the gut-liver axis and, consequently, etiopathogenesis of chronic liver diseases. This could have a positive impact on future therapeutic strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: gut microbiota; gut-liver axis; chronic liver diseases; fecal transplantation; probiotics gut microbiota; gut-liver axis; chronic liver diseases; fecal transplantation; probiotics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Milosevic, I.; Vujovic, A.; Barac, A.; Djelic, M.; Korac, M.; Radovanovic Spurnic, A.; Gmizic, I.; Stevanovic, O.; Djordjevic, V.; Lekic, N.; Russo, E.; Amedei, A. Gut-Liver Axis, Gut Microbiota, and Its Modulation in the Management of Liver Diseases: A Review of the Literature. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 395. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20020395

AMA Style

Milosevic I, Vujovic A, Barac A, Djelic M, Korac M, Radovanovic Spurnic A, Gmizic I, Stevanovic O, Djordjevic V, Lekic N, Russo E, Amedei A. Gut-Liver Axis, Gut Microbiota, and Its Modulation in the Management of Liver Diseases: A Review of the Literature. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(2):395. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20020395

Chicago/Turabian Style

Milosevic, Ivana; Vujovic, Ankica; Barac, Aleksandra; Djelic, Marina; Korac, Milos; Radovanovic Spurnic, Aleksandra; Gmizic, Ivana; Stevanovic, Olja; Djordjevic, Vladimir; Lekic, Nebojsa; Russo, Edda; Amedei, Amedeo. 2019. "Gut-Liver Axis, Gut Microbiota, and Its Modulation in the Management of Liver Diseases: A Review of the Literature" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 20, no. 2: 395. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20020395

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