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Needle-Free Immunization with Chitosan-Based Systems

Molecular Mechanisms of Chitosan Interactions with Fungi and Plants

Department of Marine Sciences and Applied Biology, Laboratory of Plant Pathology, Multidisciplinary Institute for Environmental Studies (MIES) Ramon Margalef, University of Alicante, 03080 Alicante, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(2), 332;
Received: 6 November 2018 / Revised: 7 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitins 2018)
Chitosan is a versatile compound with multiple biotechnological applications. This polymer inhibits clinically important human fungal pathogens under the same carbon and nitrogen status as in blood. Chitosan permeabilises their high-fluidity plasma membrane and increases production of intracellular oxygen species (ROS). Conversely, chitosan is compatible with mammalian cell lines as well as with biocontrol fungi (BCF). BCF resistant to chitosan have low-fluidity membranes and high glucan/chitin ratios in their cell walls. Recent studies illustrate molecular and physiological basis of chitosan-root interactions. Chitosan induces auxin accumulation in Arabidopsis roots. This polymer causes overexpression of tryptophan-dependent auxin biosynthesis pathway. It also blocks auxin translocation in roots. Chitosan is a plant defense modulator. Endophytes and fungal pathogens evade plant immunity converting chitin into chitosan. LysM effectors shield chitin and protect fungal cell walls from plant chitinases. These enzymes together with fungal chitin deacetylases, chitosanases and effectors play determinant roles during fungal colonization of plants. This review describes chitosan mode of action (cell and gene targets) in fungi and plants. This knowledge will help to develop chitosan for agrobiotechnological and medical applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: chitosan; antimicrobial compounds; auxin; effectors; LysM motifs; plant immunity; ROS chitosan; antimicrobial compounds; auxin; effectors; LysM motifs; plant immunity; ROS
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lopez-Moya, F.; Suarez-Fernandez, M.; Lopez-Llorca, L.V. Molecular Mechanisms of Chitosan Interactions with Fungi and Plants. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 332.

AMA Style

Lopez-Moya F, Suarez-Fernandez M, Lopez-Llorca LV. Molecular Mechanisms of Chitosan Interactions with Fungi and Plants. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(2):332.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lopez-Moya, Federico, Marta Suarez-Fernandez, and Luis V. Lopez-Llorca. 2019. "Molecular Mechanisms of Chitosan Interactions with Fungi and Plants" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20, no. 2: 332.

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