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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(2), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20020256

Abiotic Stresses Intervene with ABA Signaling to Induce Destructive Metabolic Pathways Leading to Death: Premature Leaf Senescence in Plants

1
Institute of Crop Science, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
2
Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Centre for Modern Crop Production, Nanjing 210000, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 December 2018 / Revised: 27 December 2018 / Accepted: 28 December 2018 / Published: 10 January 2019
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Abstract

Abiotic stresses trigger premature leaf senescence by affecting some endogenous factors, which is an important limitation for plant growth and grain yield. Among these endogenous factors that regulate leaf senescence, abscisic acid (ABA) works as a link between the oxidase damage of cellular structure and signal molecules responding to abiotic stress during leaf senescence. Considering the importance of ABA, we collect the latest findings related to ABA biosynthesis, ABA signaling, and its inhibitory effect on chloroplast structure destruction, chlorophyll (Chl) degradation, and photosynthesis reduction. Post-translational changes in leaf senescence end with the exhaustion of nutrients, yellowing of leaves, and death of senescent tissues. In this article, we review the literature on the ABA-inducing leaf senescence mechanism in rice and Arabidopsis starting from ABA synthesis, transport, signaling receptors, and catabolism. We also predict the future outcomes of investigations related to other plants. Before changes in translation occur, ABA signaling that mediates the expression of NYC, bZIP, and WRKY transcription factors (TFs) has been investigated to explain the inducing effect on senescence-associated genes. Various factors related to calcium signaling, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and protein degradation are elaborated, and research gaps and potential prospects are presented. Examples of gene mutation conferring the delay or induction of leaf senescence are also described, and they may be helpful in understanding the inhibitory effect of abiotic stresses and effective measures to tolerate, minimize, or resist their inducing effect on leaf senescence. View Full-Text
Keywords: premature leaf senescence; ABA biosynthesis; ABA signaling receptors; chlorophyll degradation; ABA-induced transcription factors premature leaf senescence; ABA biosynthesis; ABA signaling receptors; chlorophyll degradation; ABA-induced transcription factors
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Asad, M.A.U.; Zakari, S.A.; Zhao, Q.; Zhou, L.; Ye, Y.; Cheng, F. Abiotic Stresses Intervene with ABA Signaling to Induce Destructive Metabolic Pathways Leading to Death: Premature Leaf Senescence in Plants. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 256.

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