Next Article in Journal
Discovery of 3-Arylquinoxaline Derivatives as Potential Anti-Dengue Virus Agents
Next Article in Special Issue
Rhododenol Activates Melanocytes and Induces Morphological Alteration at Sub-Cytotoxic Levels
Previous Article in Journal
Gene Expression of Haloferax volcanii on Intermediate and Abundant Sources of Fixed Nitrogen
Previous Article in Special Issue
From Extraction to Advanced Analytical Methods: The Challenges of Melanin Analysis
Article

The Organogermanium Compound THGP Suppresses Melanin Synthesis via Complex Formation with L-DOPA on Mushroom Tyrosinase and in B16 4A5 Melanoma Cells

1
Asai Germanium Research Institute Co., Ltd. Suzuranoka 3-131, Hakodate, Hokkaido 042-0958, Japan
2
Cellular Biology Laboratory, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Miyagi, Sendai 980-8572, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4785; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194785
Received: 28 August 2019 / Revised: 20 September 2019 / Accepted: 24 September 2019 / Published: 26 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Melanins and Melanogenesis 2.0: From Nature to Applications)
The organogermanium compound 3-(trihydroxygermyl)propanoic acid (THGP) has various biological activities. We previously reported that THGP forms a complex with cis-diol structures. L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), a precursor of melanin, contains a cis-diol structure in its catechol skeleton, and excessive melanin production causes skin darkening and staining. Thus, the cosmetic field is investigating substances that suppress melanin production. In this study, we investigated whether THGP inhibits melanin synthesis via the formation of a complex with L-DOPA using mushroom tyrosinase and B16 4A5 melanoma cells. The ability of THGP to interact with L-DOPA was analyzed by 1H-NMR, and the influence of THGP and/or kojic acid on melanin synthesis was investigated. We also examined the effect of THGP on cytotoxicity, tyrosinase activity, and gene expression and found that THGP interacted with L-DOPA, a precursor of melanin with a cis-diol structure. The results also showed that THGP inhibited melanin synthesis, exerted a synergistic effect with kojic acid, and did not affect tyrosinase activity or gene expression. These results suggest that THGP is a useful substrate that functions as an inhibitor of melanogenesis and that its effect is enhanced by combination with kojic acid. View Full-Text
Keywords: organogermanium; THGP; melanogenesis organogermanium; THGP; melanogenesis
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Azumi, J.; Takeda, T.; Shimada, Y.; Aso, H.; Nakamura, T. The Organogermanium Compound THGP Suppresses Melanin Synthesis via Complex Formation with L-DOPA on Mushroom Tyrosinase and in B16 4A5 Melanoma Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 4785. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194785

AMA Style

Azumi J, Takeda T, Shimada Y, Aso H, Nakamura T. The Organogermanium Compound THGP Suppresses Melanin Synthesis via Complex Formation with L-DOPA on Mushroom Tyrosinase and in B16 4A5 Melanoma Cells. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(19):4785. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194785

Chicago/Turabian Style

Azumi, Junya, Tomoya Takeda, Yasuhiro Shimada, Hisashi Aso, and Takashi Nakamura. 2019. "The Organogermanium Compound THGP Suppresses Melanin Synthesis via Complex Formation with L-DOPA on Mushroom Tyrosinase and in B16 4A5 Melanoma Cells" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20, no. 19: 4785. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194785

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop