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Open AccessArticle

Avian Expression Patterns and Genomic Mapping Implicate Leptin in Digestion and TNF in Immunity, Suggesting That Their Interacting Adipokine Role Has Been Acquired Only in Mammals

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Department of Animal Science, Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, P.O. Box 15159, Rishon LeTsiyon 7528809, Israel
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Department of Developmental Biology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, 12843 Prague, Czech Republic
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Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S4K1, Canada
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GenPhySE, Université de Toulouse, INRA, ENVT, 31326 Castanet Tolosan, France
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Institute of Molecular Genetics of the Czech Academy of Sciences, 14220 Prague, Czech Republic
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Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, SE-75123 Uppsala, Sweden
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Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden
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Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4458, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(18), 4489; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20184489
Received: 31 July 2019 / Revised: 29 August 2019 / Accepted: 6 September 2019 / Published: 11 September 2019
In mammals, leptin and tumor-necrosis factor (TNF) are prominent interacting adipokines mediating appetite control and insulin sensitivity. While TNF pleiotropically functions in immune defense and cell survival, leptin is largely confined to signaling energy stores in adipocytes. Knowledge about the function of avian leptin and TNF is limited and they are absent or lowly expressed in adipose, respectively. Employing radiation-hybrid mapping and FISH-TSA, we mapped TNF and its syntenic genes to chicken chromosome 16 within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region. This mapping position suggests that avian TNF has a role in regulating immune response. To test its possible interaction with leptin within the immune system and beyond, we compared the transcription patterns of TNF, leptin and their cognate receptors obtained by meta-analysis of GenBank RNA-seq data. While expression of leptin and its receptor (LEPR) were detected in the brain and digestive tract, TNF and its receptor mRNAs were primarily found in viral-infected and LPS-treated leukocytes. We confirmed leptin expression in the duodenum by immunohistochemistry staining. Altogether, we suggest that whereas leptin and TNF interact as adipokines in mammals, in birds, they have distinct roles. Thus, the interaction between leptin and TNF may be unique to mammals. View Full-Text
Keywords: radiation-hybrid mapping; FISH-TSA; chicken; TNF; immune system; leptin; digestive tract; duodenum radiation-hybrid mapping; FISH-TSA; chicken; TNF; immune system; leptin; digestive tract; duodenum
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Seroussi, E.; Knytl, M.; Pitel, F.; Elleder, D.; Krylov, V.; Leroux, S.; Morisson, M.; Yosefi, S.; Miyara, S.; Ganesan, S.; Ruzal, M.; Andersson, L.; Friedman-Einat, M. Avian Expression Patterns and Genomic Mapping Implicate Leptin in Digestion and TNF in Immunity, Suggesting That Their Interacting Adipokine Role Has Been Acquired Only in Mammals. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 4489.

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