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Open AccessArticle

Multi-Omics Approach for Studying Tears in Treatment-Naïve Glaucoma Patients

1
Center for Advanced Studies and Technology (CAST), University ‘‘G. d’Annunzio’’ of Chieti-Pescara, 66100 Chieti, Italy
2
Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, University ‘‘G. d’Annunzio’’ of Chieti-Pescara, 66100 Chieti, Italy
3
Department of Medicine and Aging Science, “G. d’Annunzio” University of Chieti-Pescara, 66100 Chieti, Italy
4
Department of Pharmacy, University ‘‘G. d’Annunzio’’ of Chieti-Pescara, 66100 Chieti, Italy
5
Opthalmic Clinic, Ss Annunziata Hospital, 66100 Chieti, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(16), 4029; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20164029
Received: 11 June 2019 / Revised: 13 August 2019 / Accepted: 14 August 2019 / Published: 18 August 2019
Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) represents the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide and is a multifactorial, chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by retinal ganglion cell and visual field loss. There are many factors that are associated with the risk of developing POAG, with increased intraocular pressure being one of the most prevalent. Due to the asymptomatic nature of the disease, the diagnosis of POAG often occurs too late, which necessitates development of new effective screening strategies for early diagnosis of the disease. However, this task still remains unfulfilled. In order to provide further insights into the pathophysiology of POAG, we applied a targeted metabolomics strategy based on a high-throughput screening method for the determination of tear amino acids, free carnitine, acylcarnitines, succinylacetone, nucleosides, and lysophospholipids in naïve to therapy glaucomatous patients and normal controls. Also, we conducted proteomic analyses of the whole lacrimal fluid and purified extracellular vesicles obtained from POAG patients and healthy subjects. This multi-omics approach allowed us to conclude that POAG patients had lower levels of certain tear amino acids and lysophospholipids compared with controls. These targeted analyses also highlighted the low amount of acetylcarnitine (C2) in POAG patient which correlated well with proteomics data. Moreover, POAG tear proteins seemed to derive from extracellular vesicles, which carried a specific pro-inflammatory protein cargo. View Full-Text
Keywords: proteomics; extracellular vesicles; metabolomics; lipidomics; tears; biomarkers; amino acids; acylcarnitines; glaucoma proteomics; extracellular vesicles; metabolomics; lipidomics; tears; biomarkers; amino acids; acylcarnitines; glaucoma
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rossi, C.; Cicalini, I.; Cufaro, M.C.; Agnifili, L.; Mastropasqua, L.; Lanuti, P.; Marchisio, M.; De Laurenzi, V.; Del Boccio, P.; Pieragostino, D. Multi-Omics Approach for Studying Tears in Treatment-Naïve Glaucoma Patients. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 4029.

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