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Open AccessArticle

Embryonic Ontogeny of 5-Hydroxyindoles and 5-Methoxyindoles Synthesis Pathways in the Goose Pineal Organ

Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(16), 3948;
Received: 7 July 2019 / Revised: 9 August 2019 / Accepted: 13 August 2019 / Published: 14 August 2019
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The aim of this study was to characterize the embryonic ontogeny of 5-hydroxyindoles and 5-methoxyindoles synthesis pathways in the goose pineal organ. The study was performed on embryos aged 14–28 days, which have been incubated under a 12L:12D cycle. The pineal organs were collected for measurements of indole content by HPLC every 6 h on embryonic day (ED) 14, ED 16, ED 18 and ED 22 or every 2 h on ED 24, ED 26 and ED 28. The level of tryptophan showed no significant changes during development and no day-night variations. The content of 5-hydroxytryptophan increased between ED 14 and ED 26. It was significantly higher during scotophase than during photophase starting from ED 14. The serotonin content was low during the early stages of development (ED 14–ED 18) and prominently increased from ED 20. The serotonin levels also showed day-night differences; however, they were less conspicuous than those of 5-hydroxytryptophan. The changes in the level of 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid were similar to those of serotonin. 5-Hydroxytryptophol was measurable from ED 18. Levels of N-acetylserotonin, which were detectable for the first time on ED 16, prominently increased between ED 22 and ED 28 and showed significant day–night differences from ED 20. Melatonin was detectable from ED 18. Like N-acetylserotonin, its content increased rapidly between ED 22 and ED 28, and from ED 20 showed diurnal variations. 5-Methoxyindole acetic acid and 5-methoxytryptophol occurred at measurable levels from ED 18 and ED 26, respectively. The obtained results showed that embryonic development of indole metabolism in the goose pineal organ starts with the beginning of serotonin synthesis. The processes of serotonin acetylation and 5-hydroxyindoles methylation were turned on later. Diurnal rhythmicity develops very early in the embryonic pineal organ of the goose when the eggs are incubated under a 12 h light: 12 h dark schedule. Two processes are responsible for generation of the diurnal rhythms of 5-hydroxyindoles and 5-methoxyindoles: (i) hydroxylation of tryptophan and (ii) acetylation of serotonin. View Full-Text
Keywords: serotonin; melatonin; embryonic ontogeny; pineal organ; birds serotonin; melatonin; embryonic ontogeny; pineal organ; birds

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Hanuszewska, M.; Prusik, M.; Lewczuk, B. Embryonic Ontogeny of 5-Hydroxyindoles and 5-Methoxyindoles Synthesis Pathways in the Goose Pineal Organ. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 3948.

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