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Open AccessArticle

Melatonin Modulation of Radiation and Chemotherapeutics-induced Changes on Differentiation of Breast Fibroblasts

1
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Cantabria and Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Valdecilla (IDIVAL), 39011 Santander, Spain
2
Department of Anatomy and Cellular Biology, School of Medicine, University of Cantabria, 39011 Santander, Spain
3
Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Cantabria, 39011 Santander, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(16), 3935; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20163935
Received: 11 July 2019 / Revised: 5 August 2019 / Accepted: 10 August 2019 / Published: 13 August 2019
Melatonin exerts oncostatic actions and sensitizes tumor cells to chemotherapeutics or radiation. In our study, we investigated the effects of docetaxel, vinorelbine, and radiation on human breast fibroblasts and its modulation by melatonin. Docetaxel or vinorelbine inhibits proliferation and stimulates the differentiation of breast preadipocytes, by increasing C/EBPα and PPARγ expression and by downregulating tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and IL-11 expression. Radiation inhibits both proliferation and differentiation through the downregulation of C/EBPα and PPARγ and by stimulating TNFα expression. In addition, docetaxel and radiation decrease aromatase activity and expression by decreasing aromatase promoter II and cyclooxygenases 1 and 2 (COX-1 and COX-2) expression. Melatonin potentiates the stimulatory effect of docetaxel and vinorelbine on differentiation and their inhibitory effects on aromatase activity and expression, by increasing the stimulatory effect on C/EBPα and PPARγ expression and the downregulation of antiadipogenic cytokines and COX expression. Melatonin also counteracts the inhibitory effect of radiation on differentiation of preadipocytes, by increasing C/EBPα and PPARγ expression and by decreasing TNFα expression. Melatonin also potentiates the inhibitory effect exerted by radiation on aromatase activity and expression by increasing the downregulation of promoter II, and COX-1 and COX-2 expression. Our findings suggest that melatonin modulates regulatory effects induced by chemotherapeutic drugs or radiation on preadipocytes, which makes it a promising adjuvant for chemotherapy and radiotherapy sensibilization. View Full-Text
Keywords: melatonin; breast cancer; aromatase; adipocyte; differentiation melatonin; breast cancer; aromatase; adipocyte; differentiation
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González-González, A.; García Nieto, E.; González, A.; Sánchez-Fernández, C.; Alonso-González, C.; Menéndez-Menéndez, J.; Gómez-Arozamena, J.; Cos, S.; Martínez-Campa, C. Melatonin Modulation of Radiation and Chemotherapeutics-induced Changes on Differentiation of Breast Fibroblasts. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 3935.

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