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A Long Polymorphic GT Microsatellite within a Gene Promoter Mediates Non-Imprinted Allele-Specific DNA Methylation of a CpG Island in a Goldfish Inter-Strain Hybrid

1,2,*,†, 2,† and 2
1
Zhejiang Institute of Freshwater Fisheries, Huzhou 313001, China
2
College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors equally contributed to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(16), 3923; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20163923
Received: 26 June 2019 / Revised: 1 August 2019 / Accepted: 6 August 2019 / Published: 12 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Genetics and Genomics)
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Abstract

It is now widely accepted that allele-specific DNA methylation (ASM) commonly occurs at non-imprinted loci. Most of the non-imprinted ASM regions observed both within and outside of the CpG island show a strong correlation with DNA polymorphisms. However, what polymorphic cis-acting elements mediate non-imprinted ASM of the CpG island remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the impact of polymorphic GT microsatellites within the gene promoter on non-imprinted ASM of the local CpG island in goldfish. We generated various goldfish heterozygotes, in which the length of GT microsatellites or some non-repetitive sequences in the promoter of no tail alleles was different. By examining the methylation status of the downstream CpG island in these heterozygotes, we found that polymorphisms of a long GT microsatellite can lead to the ASM of the downstream CpG island during oogenesis and embryogenesis, polymorphisms of short GT microsatellites and non-repetitive sequences in the promoter exhibited no significant effect on the methylation of the CpG island. We also observed that the ASM of the CpG island was associated with allele-specific expression in heterozygous embryos. These results suggest that a long polymorphic GT microsatellite within a gene promoter mediates non-imprinted ASM of the local CpG island in a goldfish inter-strain hybrid. View Full-Text
Keywords: allele-specific DNA methylation; CpG island; non-imprinted gene; cis-acting regulatory polymorphisms; GT microsatellites allele-specific DNA methylation; CpG island; non-imprinted gene; cis-acting regulatory polymorphisms; GT microsatellites
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Zheng, J.; Xu, H.; Cao, H. A Long Polymorphic GT Microsatellite within a Gene Promoter Mediates Non-Imprinted Allele-Specific DNA Methylation of a CpG Island in a Goldfish Inter-Strain Hybrid. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 3923.

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