Next Article in Journal
From Green Remediation to Polymer Hybrid Fabrication with Improved Optical Band Gaps
Previous Article in Journal
Significantly Elevated FMR1 mRNA and Mosaicism for Methylated Premutation and Full Mutation Alleles in Two Brothers with Autism Features Referred for Fragile X Testing
Article Menu
Issue 16 (August-2) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Systems Approach to Study Associations between OxLDL and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Rokietnicka 8, 60-806 Poznan, Poland
Institute of Computing Science, Poznan University of Technology, Piotrowo 2, 60-965 Poznan, Poland
Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Noskowskiego 12/14, 61-704 Poznan, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(16), 3909;
Received: 4 June 2019 / Revised: 4 August 2019 / Accepted: 8 August 2019 / Published: 11 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Redox Regulation of Cardiovascular Metabolism and Inflammation)
PDF [3936 KB, uploaded 15 August 2019]


Although abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a common vascular disease and is associated with high mortality, the full pathogenesis of AAA remains unknown to researchers. Abdominal aortic aneurysms and atherosclerosis are strongly related. Currently, it is more often suggested that development of AAA is not a result of atherosclerosis, however, individual factors can act independently or synergistically with atherosclerosis. One of such factors is low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and its oxidized form (oxLDL). It is known that oxLDL plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, thus, we decided to examine oxLDL impact on the development of AAA by creating two models using Petri-nets. The first, full model, contains subprocess of LDL oxidation and all subprocesses in which it participates, while the second, reduced model, does not contain them. The analysis of such models can be based on t-invariants. They correspond to subprocesses which do not change the state of the modeled system. Moreover, the knockout analysis has been used to estimate how crucial a selected transition (representing elementary subprocess) is, based on the number of excluded subprocesses as a result of its knockout. The results of the analysis of our models show that oxLDL affects 55.84% of subprocesses related to AAA development, but the analysis of the nets based on knockouts and simulation has shown that the influence of oxLDL on enlargement and rupture of AAA is negligible. View Full-Text
Keywords: abdominal aortic aneurysm; atherosclerosis; ldl; oxldl; modeling; petri nets; t-invariants abdominal aortic aneurysm; atherosclerosis; ldl; oxldl; modeling; petri nets; t-invariants

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Gutowski, Ł.; Gutowska, K.; Pioruńska-Stolzmann, M.; Formanowicz, P.; Formanowicz, D. Systems Approach to Study Associations between OxLDL and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 3909.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top