Utilization of liquid biopsy in the management of cancerous diseases is becoming more attractive. This method can overcome typical limitations of tissue biopsies, especially invasiveness, no repeatability, and the inability to monitor responses to medication during treatment as well as condition during follow-up. Liquid biopsy also provides greater possibility of early prediction of cancer presence. Corpus uteri mesenchymal tumors are comprised of benign variants, which are mostly leiomyomas, but also a heterogenous group of malignant sarcomas. Pre-surgical differentiation between these tumors is very difficult and the final description of tumor characteristics usually requires excision and histological examination. The leiomyomas and malignant leiomyosarcomas are especially difficult to distinguish and can, therefore, be easily misdiagnosed. Because of the very aggressive character of sarcomas, liquid biopsy based on early diagnosis and differentiation of these tumors would be extremely helpful. Moreover, after excision of the tumor, liquid biopsy can contribute to an increased knowledge of sarcoma behavior at the molecular level, especially on the formation of metastases which is still not well understood. In this review, we summarize the most important knowledge of mesenchymal uterine tumors, the possibilities and benefits of liquid biopsy utilization, the types of molecules and cells that can be analyzed with this approach, and the possibility of their isolation and capture. Finally, we review the typical abnormalities of leiomyomas and sarcomas that can be searched and analyzed in liquid biopsy samples with the final aim to pre-surgically differentiate between benign and malignant mesenchymal tumors.
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