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Open AccessReview

Progesterone and Estrogen Signaling in the Endometrium: What Goes Wrong in Endometriosis?

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, USA
Cell and Molecular Biology Program, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Guro Hospital, Korea University Medical Center, Seoul 08318, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(15), 3822;
Received: 25 June 2019 / Revised: 30 July 2019 / Accepted: 1 August 2019 / Published: 5 August 2019
In the healthy endometrium, progesterone and estrogen signaling coordinate in a tightly regulated, dynamic interplay to drive a normal menstrual cycle and promote an embryo-receptive state to allow implantation during the window of receptivity. It is well-established that progesterone and estrogen act primarily through their cognate receptors to set off cascades of signaling pathways and enact large-scale gene expression programs. In endometriosis, when endometrial tissue grows outside the uterine cavity, progesterone and estrogen signaling are disrupted, commonly resulting in progesterone resistance and estrogen dominance. This hormone imbalance leads to heightened inflammation and may also increase the pelvic pain of the disease and decrease endometrial receptivity to embryo implantation. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms governing progesterone and estrogen signaling supporting endometrial function and how they become dysregulated in endometriosis. Understanding how these mechanisms contribute to the pelvic pain and infertility associated with endometriosis will open new avenues of targeted medical therapies to give relief to the millions of women suffering its effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: progesterone; estrogen; endometrium; infertility; endometriosis; progesterone resistance progesterone; estrogen; endometrium; infertility; endometriosis; progesterone resistance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Marquardt, R.M.; Kim, T.H.; Shin, J.-H.; Jeong, J.-W. Progesterone and Estrogen Signaling in the Endometrium: What Goes Wrong in Endometriosis? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 3822.

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