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Heavy Metal Pollutions: State of the Art and Innovation in Phytoremediation

1
Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, 37134 Verona, Italy
2
Department of Chemistry, Life Sciences and Environmental Sustainability, University of Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze, 11/A, 43124 Parma, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(14), 3412; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20143412
Received: 20 June 2019 / Revised: 9 July 2019 / Accepted: 10 July 2019 / Published: 11 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metals Accumulation, Toxicity and Detoxification in Plants)
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Abstract

Mineral nutrition of plants greatly depends on both environmental conditions, particularly of soils, and the genetic background of the plant itself. Being sessile, plants adopted a range of strategies for sensing and responding to nutrient availability to optimize development and growth, as well as to protect their metabolisms from heavy metal toxicity. Such mechanisms, together with the soil environment, meaning the soil microorganisms and their interaction with plant roots, have been extensively studied with the goal of exploiting them to reclaim polluted lands; this approach, defined phytoremediation, will be the subject of this review. The main aspects and innovations in this field are considered, in particular with respect to the selection of efficient plant genotypes, the application of improved cultural strategies, and the symbiotic interaction with soil microorganisms, to manage heavy metal polluted soils. View Full-Text
Keywords: phytoremediation; heavy metals; hyperaccumulation; plant genotype improvement; soil management phytoremediation; heavy metals; hyperaccumulation; plant genotype improvement; soil management
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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DalCorso, G.; Fasani, E.; Manara, A.; Visioli, G.; Furini, A. Heavy Metal Pollutions: State of the Art and Innovation in Phytoremediation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 3412.

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