Next Article in Journal
mRNA Engineering for the Efficient Chaperone-Mediated Co-Translational Folding of Recombinant Proteins in Escherichia coli
Next Article in Special Issue
Special Issue on Molecular Research Efforts in Urothelial Carcinoma: Summary of Included Topics
Previous Article in Journal
Recent Developments in TSPO PET Imaging as A Biomarker of Neuroinflammation in Neurodegenerative Disorders
Previous Article in Special Issue
Obatoclax, a BH3 Mimetic, Enhances Cisplatin-Induced Apoptosis and Decreases the Clonogenicity of Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer Cells via Mechanisms That Involve the Inhibition of Pro-Survival Molecules as Well as Cell Cycle Regulators
Open AccessReview

Aristolochic Acid and Immunotherapy for Urothelial Carcinoma: Directions for unmet Needs

1
Department of Nephrology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan
2
Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 83301, Taiwan
3
Division of Allergy, Asthma, and Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan
4
Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Science, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan
5
Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan
6
Department of Medical Education, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(13), 3162; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20133162
Received: 12 May 2019 / Revised: 23 June 2019 / Accepted: 25 June 2019 / Published: 28 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research Efforts in Urothelial Carcinoma)
  |  
PDF [556 KB, uploaded 28 June 2019]
  |  

Abstract

Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) and upper tracts (UTUC) used to share management with similar principles. However, their genetic and epigenetic differences along with different responses to immunotherapy were recently identified, which are reminiscent of their distinct etiologies. Different from the variety of environmental factors relating to UCB, UTUC is best known for its close relationship with exposure to aristolochic acid (AA). AA is believed to cause its carcinogenicity through forming DNA adducts of deoxyadenosine-aristolactam, as well as A:T → T:A transversions in the TP53 tumor suppressor gene. Since recent findings suggested that cancers with higher somatic mutations are associated with better treatment responses upon immune checkpoint blockade, UTUC and AA-related biomarkers reasonably serve as good candidates, as well as a potential prognostic predictor for the flourishing immunotherapy. This review covers the current state of the literature on the clinical response of UTUC and UCB receiving immunotherapy and points out directions for refinement regarding patient selection. View Full-Text
Keywords: upper tract urothelial carcinoma; urothelial carcinoma of the bladder; aristolochic acid; immune checkpoint inhibitors; mutation load upper tract urothelial carcinoma; urothelial carcinoma of the bladder; aristolochic acid; immune checkpoint inhibitors; mutation load
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, H.-Y.; Yang, C.-C.; Wu, C.-Y.; Wang, L.-J.; Lu, K.-L. Aristolochic Acid and Immunotherapy for Urothelial Carcinoma: Directions for unmet Needs. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 3162.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top