Molecular strategies tailored to promote/correct the expression and/or processing of defective coagulation factors would represent innovative therapeutic approaches beyond standard substitutive therapy. Here, we focus on the molecular mechanisms and determinants underlying innovative approaches acting at DNA, mRNA and protein levels in inherited coagulation factor deficiencies, and in particular on: (i) gene editing approaches, which have permitted intervention at the DNA level through the specific recognition, cleavage, repair/correction or activation of target sequences, even in mutated gene contexts; (ii) the rescue of altered pre-mRNA processing through the engineering of key spliceosome components able to promote correct exon recognition and, in turn, the synthesis and secretion of functional factors, as well as the effects on the splicing of missense changes affecting exonic splicing elements; this section includes antisense oligonucleotide- or siRNA-mediated approaches to down-regulate target genes; (iii) the rescue of protein synthesis/function through the induction of ribosome readthrough targeting nonsense variants or the correction of folding defects caused by amino acid substitutions. Overall, these approaches have shown the ability to rescue the expression and/or function of potentially therapeutic levels of coagulation factors in different disease models, thus supporting further studies in the future aimed at evaluating the clinical translatability of these new strategies.
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