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Diverse Actions of Astrocytes in GABAergic Signaling

by 1,†, 2,† and 1,3,*
1
Department of Neurophysiology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 431-3192, Japan
2
Pediatric Department, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-8638, Japan
3
Advanced Research Facilities and Services, Preeminent Medical Photonics Education and Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 431-3192, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(12), 2964; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20122964
Received: 22 April 2019 / Revised: 10 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 18 June 2019
An imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission leading to over excitation plays a crucial role in generating seizures, while enhancing GABAergic mechanisms are critical in terminating seizures. In recent years, it has been reported in many studies that astrocytes are deeply involved in synaptic transmission. Astrocytes form a critical component of the “tripartite” synapses by wrapping around the pre- and post-synaptic elements. From this location, astrocytes are known to greatly influence the dynamics of ions and transmitters in the synaptic cleft. Despite recent extensive research on excitatory tripartite synapses, inhibitory tripartite synapses have received less attention, even though they influence inhibitory synaptic transmission by affecting chloride and GABA concentration dynamics. In this review, we will discuss the diverse actions of astrocytic chloride and GABA homeostasis at GABAergic tripartite synapses. We will then consider the pathophysiological impacts of disturbed GABA homeostasis at the tripartite synapse. View Full-Text
Keywords: Astrocyte; GABAergic synapse; Tripartite synapse; GABA; Chloride; Epilepsy Astrocyte; GABAergic synapse; Tripartite synapse; GABA; Chloride; Epilepsy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ishibashi, M.; Egawa, K.; Fukuda, A. Diverse Actions of Astrocytes in GABAergic Signaling. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 2964. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20122964

AMA Style

Ishibashi M, Egawa K, Fukuda A. Diverse Actions of Astrocytes in GABAergic Signaling. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(12):2964. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20122964

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ishibashi, Masaru, Kiyoshi Egawa, and Atsuo Fukuda. 2019. "Diverse Actions of Astrocytes in GABAergic Signaling" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20, no. 12: 2964. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20122964

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