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Can Epigenetics of Endothelial Dysfunction Represent the Key to Precision Medicine in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus?

1
Department of Biomedical Science and Human Oncology, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, 70124 Bari, Italy
2
Laboratory of Oncology, Fondazione IRCCS Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza, 71013 San Giovanni Rotondo (Foggia), Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(12), 2949; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20122949
Received: 21 May 2019 / Revised: 10 June 2019 / Accepted: 13 June 2019 / Published: 17 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epigenetics in Metabolic and Neurological Disorders)
In both developing and industrialized Countries, the growing prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and the severity of its related complications make T2DM one of the most challenging metabolic diseases worldwide. The close relationship between genetic and environmental factors suggests that eating habits and unhealthy lifestyles may significantly affect metabolic pathways, resulting in dynamic modifications of chromatin-associated proteins and homeostatic transcriptional responses involved in the progression of T2DM. Epigenetic mechanisms may be implicated in the complex processes linking environmental factors to genetic predisposition to metabolic disturbances, leading to obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Endothelial dysfunction represents an earlier marker and an important player in the development of this disease. Dysregulation of the endothelial ability to produce and release vasoactive mediators is recognized as the initial feature of impaired vascular activity under obesity and other insulin resistance conditions and undoubtedly concurs to the accelerated progression of atherosclerotic lesions and overall cardiovascular risk in T2DM patients. This review aims to summarize the most current knowledge regarding the involvement of epigenetic changes associated with endothelial dysfunction in T2DM, in order to identify potential targets that might contribute to pursuing “precision medicine” in the context of diabetic illness. View Full-Text
Keywords: epigenetic changes; type 2 diabetes; endothelial dysfunction; antidiabetic drugs epigenetic changes; type 2 diabetes; endothelial dysfunction; antidiabetic drugs
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Coco, C.; Sgarra, L.; Potenza, M.A.; Nacci, C.; Pasculli, B.; Barbano, R.; Parrella, P.; Montagnani, M. Can Epigenetics of Endothelial Dysfunction Represent the Key to Precision Medicine in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 2949.

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