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Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase CYP139 Family Involved in the Synthesis of Secondary Metabolites in 824 Mycobacterial Species
Open AccessArticle

Distribution and Diversity of Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases in the Fungal Class Tremellomycetes

1
Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Faculty of Science and Agriculture, University of Zululand, KwaDlangezwa 3886, South Africa
2
College of Food Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
3
Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 3155 MSB, 1550 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA
4
Department of Systems Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea
5
Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Biochemistry, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(12), 2889; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20122889
Received: 20 April 2019 / Revised: 25 May 2019 / Accepted: 30 May 2019 / Published: 13 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytochromes P450: Drug Metabolism, Bioactivation and Biodiversity 2.0)
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Abstract

Tremellomycetes, a fungal class in the subphylum Agaricomycotina, contain well-known opportunistic and emerging human pathogens. The azole drug fluconazole, used in the treatment of diseases caused by some species of Tremellomycetes, inhibits cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP51, an enzyme that converts lanosterol into an essential component of the fungal cell membrane ergosterol. Studies indicate that mutations and over-expression of CYP51 in species of Tremellomycetes are one of the reasons for fluconazole resistance. Moreover, the novel drug, VT-1129, that is in the pipeline is reported to exert its effect by binding and inhibiting CYP51. Despite the importance of CYPs, the CYP repertoire in species of Tremellomycetes has not been reported to date. This study intends to address this research gap. Comprehensive genome-wide CYP analysis revealed the presence of 203 CYPs (excluding 16 pseudo-CYPs) in 23 species of Tremellomycetes that can be grouped into 38 CYP families and 72 CYP subfamilies. Twenty-three CYP families are new and three CYP families (CYP5139, CYP51 and CYP61) were conserved across 23 species of Tremellomycetes. Pathogenic cryptococcal species have 50% fewer CYP genes than non-pathogenic species. The results of this study will serve as reference for future annotation and characterization of CYPs in species of Tremellomycetes. View Full-Text
Keywords: cryptococcus; cryptococcus neoformans; cytochrome P450 monooxygenase; CYP51; fungal pathogens; genome data-mining; human pathogens; CYP diversity analysis; tremellomycetes; trichosporon cryptococcus; cryptococcus neoformans; cytochrome P450 monooxygenase; CYP51; fungal pathogens; genome data-mining; human pathogens; CYP diversity analysis; tremellomycetes; trichosporon
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Akapo, O.O.; Padayachee, T.; Chen, W.; Kappo, A.P.; Yu, J.-H.; Nelson, D.R.; Syed, K. Distribution and Diversity of Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases in the Fungal Class Tremellomycetes. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 2889.

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