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Experimental Motor Neuron Disease Induced in Mice with Long-Term Repeated Intraperitoneal Injections of Serum from ALS Patients

Risk Factors and Emerging Therapies in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

Department of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Collegium Medicum, University of Warmia and Mazury, 10-900 Olsztyn, Poland
Institute of Psychology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Jaracza 1, 00-378 Warsaw, Poland
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(11), 2616;
Received: 26 April 2019 / Revised: 17 May 2019 / Accepted: 24 May 2019 / Published: 28 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Highlights of Its Complexity)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by a permanent degeneration of both upper and lower motor neurons. Many different genes and pathophysiological processes contribute to this disease, however its exact cause remains unclear. Therefore, it is necessary to understand this heterogeneity to find effective treatments. In this review, we focus on selected environmental and genetic risk factors predisposing to ALS and highlight emerging treatments in ALS therapy. Of numerous defective genes associated with ALS, we focus on four principal genes that have been identified as definite causes of ALS: the SOD1 gene, C9orf72, TDP-43, as well as the recently identified TBK1. We also provide up-to-date information on selected environmental factors that have historically been considered as key players in ALS development and pathogenesis. In parallel to our survey of known risk factors, we also discuss emerging ALS stem cell therapies and experimental medicines currently undergoing phase II and III clinical trials. View Full-Text
Keywords: ALS; risk factors; genetic factors; environmental factors; ALS treatment ALS; risk factors; genetic factors; environmental factors; ALS treatment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nowicka, N.; Juranek, J.; Juranek, J.K.; Wojtkiewicz, J. Risk Factors and Emerging Therapies in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 2616.

AMA Style

Nowicka N, Juranek J, Juranek JK, Wojtkiewicz J. Risk Factors and Emerging Therapies in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(11):2616.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nowicka, Natalia; Juranek, Jakub; Juranek, Judyta K.; Wojtkiewicz, Joanna. 2019. "Risk Factors and Emerging Therapies in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 20, no. 11: 2616.

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