Next Article in Journal
The Direct Interaction between E93 and Kr-h1 Mediated Their Antagonistic Effect on Ovary Development of the Brown Planthopper
Previous Article in Journal
New Approaches in the Management of Sudden Cardiac Death in Patients with Heart Failure—Targeting the Sympathetic Nervous System
Previous Article in Special Issue
Microbial Co-Occurrence Patterns and Keystone Species in the Gut Microbial Community of Mice in Response to Stress and Chondroitin Sulfate Disaccharide
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Dysbiosis Disrupts Gut Immune Homeostasis and Promotes Gastric Diseases

Amity Institute of Virology and Immunology, Amity University, Sector 125, Noida 201313, Uttar Pradesh, India
Department of Animal Biology, School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046, Telengana, India
National Institute of Immunology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067, India
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(10), 2432;
Received: 26 March 2019 / Revised: 18 April 2019 / Accepted: 19 April 2019 / Published: 16 May 2019
PDF [1065 KB, uploaded 16 May 2019]


Perturbation in the microbial population/colony index has harmful consequences on human health. Both biological and social factors influence the composition of the gut microbiota and also promote gastric diseases. Changes in the gut microbiota manifest in disease progression owing to epigenetic modification in the host, which in turn influences differentiation and function of immune cells adversely. Uncontrolled use of antibiotics, chemotherapeutic drugs, and any change in the diet pattern usually contribute to the changes in the colony index of sensitive strains known to release microbial content in the tissue micromilieu. Ligands released from dying microbes induce Toll-like receptor (TLR) mimicry, skew hypoxia, and cause sterile inflammation, which further contributes to the severity of inflammatory, autoimmune, and tumorous diseases. The major aim and scope of this review is both to discuss various modalities/interventions across the globe and to utilize microbiota-based therapeutic approaches for mitigating the disease burden. View Full-Text
Keywords: gut microbiota; macrophages; TLR mimicry; immune epigenetics; metabolism; sterile inflammation gut microbiota; macrophages; TLR mimicry; immune epigenetics; metabolism; sterile inflammation

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

  • Externally hosted supplementary file 1
    Doi: NA
    Link: http://NA
    Description: Authors, Response letter

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Toor, D.; Wsson, M.K.; Kumar, P.; Karthikeyan, G.; Kaushik, N.K.; Goel, C.; Singh, S.; Kumar, A.; Prakash, H. Dysbiosis Disrupts Gut Immune Homeostasis and Promotes Gastric Diseases. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 2432.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top