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Open AccessReview

Dysbiosis Disrupts Gut Immune Homeostasis and Promotes Gastric Diseases

Amity Institute of Virology and Immunology, Amity University, Sector 125, Noida 201313, Uttar Pradesh, India
Department of Animal Biology, School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046, Telengana, India
National Institute of Immunology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067, India
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(10), 2432;
Received: 26 March 2019 / Revised: 18 April 2019 / Accepted: 19 April 2019 / Published: 16 May 2019
Perturbation in the microbial population/colony index has harmful consequences on human health. Both biological and social factors influence the composition of the gut microbiota and also promote gastric diseases. Changes in the gut microbiota manifest in disease progression owing to epigenetic modification in the host, which in turn influences differentiation and function of immune cells adversely. Uncontrolled use of antibiotics, chemotherapeutic drugs, and any change in the diet pattern usually contribute to the changes in the colony index of sensitive strains known to release microbial content in the tissue micromilieu. Ligands released from dying microbes induce Toll-like receptor (TLR) mimicry, skew hypoxia, and cause sterile inflammation, which further contributes to the severity of inflammatory, autoimmune, and tumorous diseases. The major aim and scope of this review is both to discuss various modalities/interventions across the globe and to utilize microbiota-based therapeutic approaches for mitigating the disease burden. View Full-Text
Keywords: gut microbiota; macrophages; TLR mimicry; immune epigenetics; metabolism; sterile inflammation gut microbiota; macrophages; TLR mimicry; immune epigenetics; metabolism; sterile inflammation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Toor, D.; Wsson, M.K.; Kumar, P.; Karthikeyan, G.; Kaushik, N.K.; Goel, C.; Singh, S.; Kumar, A.; Prakash, H. Dysbiosis Disrupts Gut Immune Homeostasis and Promotes Gastric Diseases. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 2432.

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