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Molecular Mechanisms Involved in HCC Recurrence after Direct-Acting Antiviral Therapy

C.U.R.E. University Centre for Liver Disease Research and Treatment, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Institute of Internal Medicine, University of Foggia, 71122 Foggia, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(1), 49;
Received: 9 October 2018 / Revised: 18 December 2018 / Accepted: 19 December 2018 / Published: 22 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hepatitis Virus Infection and Molecular Research 2018)
Chronic hepatitis C is associated with a high risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) because of a direct effect of the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) proteins and an indirect oncogenic effect of chronic inflammation and impaired immune response. The treatment of chronic hepatitis C markedly reduces all-cause mortality; in fact, interferon-based treatment has shown a reduction of HCC incidence of more than 70%. The recent introduction of the highly effective direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) has completely changed the scenario of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) with rates of HCV cure over 90%. However, an unexpectedly high incidence of HCC recurrence was observed in patients after DAA treatment (27% versus 0.4–2% in patients who received interferon treatment). The mechanism that underlies the high rate of tumor relapse is currently unknown and is one of the main issues in hepatology. We reviewed the possible mechanisms involved in HCC recurrence after DAA treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: direct-acting antivirals; hepatocellular carcinoma direct-acting antivirals; hepatocellular carcinoma
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Villani, R.; Vendemiale, G.; Serviddio, G. Molecular Mechanisms Involved in HCC Recurrence after Direct-Acting Antiviral Therapy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 49.

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