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The Role of Copper Homeostasis at the Host-Pathogen Axis: From Bacteria to Fungi

College of Life and Health Sciences, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110000, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(1), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20010175
Received: 28 November 2018 / Revised: 28 December 2018 / Accepted: 29 December 2018 / Published: 5 January 2019
Copper is an essential trace element participating in many vital biological processes, however it becomes a toxic agent when in excess. Thus, precise and tight regulation of copper homeostasis processes, including transport, delivery, storage, detoxification, and efflux machineries, is important, ensuring that only the amount needed to sustain basic biological functions and simultaneously prevent copper toxicity in the cell is maintained. Numerous exciting studies have revealed that copper plays an indispensable role at the microbial pathogen-host axis for entities ranging from pathogenic bacteria to deadly fungal species. Analyses of copper homeostases in bacteria and fungi extensively demonstrate that copper is utilized by the host immune system as an anti-microbial agent. The expression of copper efflux and detoxification from microbial pathogens is induced to counteract the host’s copper bombardment, which in turn disrupts these machineries, resulting in the attenuation of microbial survival in host tissue. We hereby review the latest work in copper homeostases in pathogenic bacteria and fungi and focus on the maintenance of a copper balance at the pathogen-host interaction axis. View Full-Text
Keywords: copper; fungal pathogen; bacterial pathogen; immunity copper; fungal pathogen; bacterial pathogen; immunity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, C.; Li, Y.; Ding, C. The Role of Copper Homeostasis at the Host-Pathogen Axis: From Bacteria to Fungi. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 175. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20010175

AMA Style

Li C, Li Y, Ding C. The Role of Copper Homeostasis at the Host-Pathogen Axis: From Bacteria to Fungi. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(1):175. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20010175

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Chao; Li, Yanjian; Ding, Chen. 2019. "The Role of Copper Homeostasis at the Host-Pathogen Axis: From Bacteria to Fungi" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 20, no. 1: 175. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20010175

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