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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(9), 2605; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092605

Role of Nitric Oxide in the Cardiovascular and Renal Systems

1
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
2
Translational Genomics Lab, Department of Biosciences, COMSATS University, Islamabad 45550, Pakistan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 July 2018 / Revised: 30 August 2018 / Accepted: 31 August 2018 / Published: 3 September 2018
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Abstract

The gasotransmitters are a family of gaseous signaling molecules which are produced endogenously and act at specific receptors to play imperative roles in physiologic and pathophysiologic processes. As a well-known gasotransmitter along with hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide, nitric oxide (NO) has earned repute as a potent vasodilator also known as endothelium-derived vasorelaxant factor (EDRF). NO has been studied in greater detail, from its synthesis and mechanism of action to its physiologic, pathologic, and pharmacologic roles in different disease states. Different animal models have been applied to investigate the beneficial effects of NO as an antihypertensive, renoprotective, and antihypertrophic agent. NO and its interaction with different systems like the renin–angiotensin system, sympathetic nervous system, and other gaseous transmitters like hydrogen sulfide are also well studied. However, links that appear to exist between the endocannabinoid (EC) and NO systems remain to be fully explored. Experimental approaches using modulators of its synthesis including substrate, donors, and inhibitors of the synthesis of NO will be useful for establishing the relationship between the NO and EC systems in the cardiovascular and renal systems. Being a potent vasodilator, NO may be unique among therapeutic options for management of hypertension and resulting renal disease and left ventricular hypertrophy. Inclusion of NO modulators in clinical practice may be useful not only as curatives for particular diseases but also for arresting disease prognoses through its interactions with other systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: nitric oxide; vasodilation; hypertension; kidney disease; noradrenaline; angiotensin II nitric oxide; vasodilation; hypertension; kidney disease; noradrenaline; angiotensin II
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Ahmad, A.; Dempsey, S.K.; Daneva, Z.; Azam, M.; Li, N.; Li, P.-L.; Ritter, J.K. Role of Nitric Oxide in the Cardiovascular and Renal Systems. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2605.

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