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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(9), 2596; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092596

The Hydrophobin HYTLO1 Secreted by the Biocontrol Fungus Trichoderma longibrachiatum Triggers a NAADP-Mediated Calcium Signalling Pathway in Lotus japonicus

1
Department of Biology, University of Padova, Via U. Bassi 58/B, 35131 Padova, Italy
2
Institute for Sustainable Plant Protection, CNR, Via Università 133, 80055 Portici (NA), Italy
3
Institute of BioSciences and BioResourses, CNR, Via P. Castellino 111, 80131 Napoli, Italy
4
Botanical Garden, University of Padova, Via Orto Botanico 15, 35123 Padova, Italy
5
Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Napoli “Federico II”, Via Università 100, 80055 Portici (NA), Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 July 2018 / Accepted: 29 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Signals in Plant Cells)
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Abstract

Trichoderma filamentous fungi are increasingly used as biocontrol agents and plant biostimulants. Growing evidence indicates that part of the beneficial effects is mediated by the activity of fungal metabolites on the plant host. We have investigated the mechanism of plant perception of HYTLO1, a hydrophobin abundantly secreted by Trichoderma longibrachiatum, which may play an important role in the early stages of the plant-fungus interaction. Aequorin-expressing Lotus japonicus suspension cell cultures responded to HYTLO1 with a rapid cytosolic Ca2+ increase that dissipated within 30 min, followed by the activation of the defence-related genes MPK3, WRK33, and CP450. The Ca2+-dependence of these gene expression was demonstrated by using the extracellular Ca2+ chelator EGTA and Ned-19, a potent inhibitor of the nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) receptor in animal cells, which effectively blocked the HYTLO1-induced Ca2+ elevation. Immunocytochemical analyses showed the localization of the fungal hydrophobin at the plant cell surface, where it forms a protein film covering the plant cell wall. Our data demonstrate the Ca2+-mediated perception by plant cells of a key metabolite secreted by a biocontrol fungus, and provide the first evidence of the involvement of NAADP-gated Ca2+ release in a signalling pathway triggered by a biotic stimulus. View Full-Text
Keywords: aequorin; biocontrol fungi; calcium signalling; Lotus japonicus; hydrophobins; HYTLO1; NAADP; Trichoderma aequorin; biocontrol fungi; calcium signalling; Lotus japonicus; hydrophobins; HYTLO1; NAADP; Trichoderma
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Moscatiello, R.; Sello, S.; Ruocco, M.; Barbulova, A.; Cortese, E.; Nigris, S.; Baldan, B.; Chiurazzi, M.; Mariani, P.; Lorito, M.; Navazio, L. The Hydrophobin HYTLO1 Secreted by the Biocontrol Fungus Trichoderma longibrachiatum Triggers a NAADP-Mediated Calcium Signalling Pathway in Lotus japonicus. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2596.

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