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Natural Products for the Treatment of Autoimmune Arthritis: Their Mechanisms of Action, Targeted Delivery, and Interplay with the Host Microbiome

1
Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
2
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
3
Family and Community Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
4
Center for Integrative Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
5
Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
6
Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this manuscript.
Supv. Research Health Scientist, Veterans Affairs.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(9), 2508; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092508
Received: 23 July 2018 / Revised: 12 August 2018 / Accepted: 18 August 2018 / Published: 24 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Natural Products for Human Health)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, debilitating illness characterized by painful swelling of the joints, inflammation of the synovial lining of the joints, and damage to cartilage and bone. Several anti-inflammatory and disease-modifying drugs are available for RA therapy. However, the prolonged use of these drugs is associated with severe side effects. Furthermore, these drugs are effective only in a proportion of RA patients. Hence, there is a need to search for new therapeutic agents that are effective yet safe. Interestingly, a variety of herbs and other natural products offer a vast resource for such anti-arthritic agents. We discuss here the basic features of RA pathogenesis; the commonly used animal models of RA; the mainstream drugs used for RA; the use of well-characterized natural products possessing anti-arthritic activity; the application of nanoparticles for efficient delivery of such products; and the interplay between dietary products and the host microbiome for maintenance of health and disease induction. We believe that with several advances in the past decade in the characterization and functional studies of natural products, the stage is set for widespread clinical testing and/or use of these products for the treatment of RA and other diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: adjuvant-induced arthritis; arthritis; celastrol; curcumin; dietary supplements; EGCG; green tea; inflammation; liposomes; microbiome; nanoparticles; natural products; resveratrol; rheumatoid arthritis; targeted delivery; traditional medicine; Tripterygium wilfordii; triptolide adjuvant-induced arthritis; arthritis; celastrol; curcumin; dietary supplements; EGCG; green tea; inflammation; liposomes; microbiome; nanoparticles; natural products; resveratrol; rheumatoid arthritis; targeted delivery; traditional medicine; Tripterygium wilfordii; triptolide
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dudics, S.; Langan, D.; Meka, R.R.; Venkatesha, S.H.; Berman, B.M.; Che, C.-T.; Moudgil, K.D. Natural Products for the Treatment of Autoimmune Arthritis: Their Mechanisms of Action, Targeted Delivery, and Interplay with the Host Microbiome. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2508.

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