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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(8), 2286; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19082286

Protective Effects of Rhodiola Crenulata Extract on Hypoxia-Induced Endothelial Damage via Regulation of AMPK and ERK Pathways

1
Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 11490, Taiwan
2
Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 11490, Taiwan
3
School of Pharmacy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 11490, Taiwan
4
Graduate Institute of Aerospace and Undersea Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 11490, Taiwan
5
Department of Biochemistry, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 11490, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 July 2018 / Revised: 1 August 2018 / Accepted: 1 August 2018 / Published: 3 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nitric Oxide Synthases: Regulation and Function)
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Abstract

Rhodiola crenulata root extract (RCE) has been shown to possess protective activities against hypoxia both in vitro and in vivo. However, the effects of RCE on response to hypoxia in the endothelium remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of RCE in endothelial cells challenged with hypoxic exposure and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were pretreated with or without RCE and then exposed to hypoxia (1% O2) for 24 h. Cell viability, nitric oxide (NO) production, oxidative stress markers, as well as mechanistic readouts were studied. We found that hypoxia-induced cell death, impaired NO production, and oxidative stress. These responses were significantly attenuated by RCE treatment and were associated with the activation of AMP-activated kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling pathways. In summary, we showed that RCE protected endothelial cells from hypoxic insult and suggested that R. crenulata might be useful for the prevention of hypoxia-associated vascular dysfunction. View Full-Text
Keywords: Rhodiola crenulata; hypoxia; endothelial cell; endothelial NOS; ERK; AMPK Rhodiola crenulata; hypoxia; endothelial cell; endothelial NOS; ERK; AMPK
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Chang, P.-K.; Yen, I.-C.; Tsai, W.-C.; Chang, T.-C.; Lee, S.-Y. Protective Effects of Rhodiola Crenulata Extract on Hypoxia-Induced Endothelial Damage via Regulation of AMPK and ERK Pathways. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2286.

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