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Chemopreventive Effects of Phytochemicals and Medicines on M1/M2 Polarized Macrophage Role in Inflammation-Related Diseases

Institute of Food Science and Technology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
Hubei Key Laboratory of Economic Forest Germplasm Improvement and Resources Comprehensive Utilization, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for the Characteristic Resources Exploitation of Dabie Mountains, Huanggang Normal University, Huanggang 410083, China
Department of Seafood Science, National Kaohsiung Marine University, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan
Faculty of Agriculture Natural Resources and Environment, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000, Thailand
Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
Department of Health and Nutrition Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung 41354, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(8), 2208;
Received: 26 June 2018 / Revised: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 23 July 2018 / Published: 28 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Macrophages in Inflammation)
Macrophages can polarize into two different states (M1 and M2), which play contrasting roles during pathogenesis or tissue damage. M1 polarized macrophages produce pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators resulting in inflammation, while M2 macrophages have an anti-inflammatory effect. Secretion of appropriate cytokines and chemokines from macrophages can lead to the modification of the microenvironment for bridging innate and adaptive immune responses. Increasing evidence suggests that polarized macrophages are pivotal for disease progression, and the regulation of macrophage polarization may provide a new approach in therapeutic treatment of inflammation-related diseases, including cancer, obesity and metabolic diseases, fibrosis in organs, brain damage and neuron injuries, and colorectal disease. Polarized macrophages affect the microenvironment by secreting cytokines and chemokines while cytokines or mediators that are produced by resident cells or tissues may also influence macrophages behavior. The interplay of macrophages and other cells can affect disease progression, and therefore, understanding the activation of macrophages and the interaction between polarized macrophages and disease progression is imperative prior to taking therapeutic or preventive actions. Manipulation of macrophages can be an entry point for disease improvement, but the mechanism and potential must be understood. In this review, some advanced studies regarding the role of macrophages in different diseases, potential mechanisms involved, and intervention of drugs or phytochemicals, which are effective on macrophage polarization, will be discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: chemoprevention; phytochemicals; M1/M2 macrophage; inflammation chemoprevention; phytochemicals; M1/M2 macrophage; inflammation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Koh, Y.-C.; Yang, G.; Lai, C.-S.; Weerawatanakorn, M.; Pan, M.-H. Chemopreventive Effects of Phytochemicals and Medicines on M1/M2 Polarized Macrophage Role in Inflammation-Related Diseases. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2208.

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