The emergence of more virulent forms of human pathogenic bacteria with multi-drug resistance is a serious global issue and requires alternative control strategies. The current study focused on investigating the antibacterial and antibiofilm potential of ferulic acid-grafted chitosan (CFA) against Listeria monocytogenes
(LM), Pseudomonas aeruginosa
(PA), and Staphylococcus aureus
(SA). The result showed that CFA at 64 µg/mL concentration exhibits bactericidal action against LM and SA (>4 log reduction) and bacteriostatic action against PA (<2 log colony forming units/mL reduction) within 24 h of incubation. Further studies based on propidium iodide uptake assay, measurement of material released from the cell, and electron microscopic analysis revealed that the bactericidal action of CFA was due to altered membrane integrity and permeability. CFA dose dependently inhibited biofilm formation (52–89% range), metabolic activity (30.8–75.1% range) and eradicated mature biofilms, and reduced viability (71–82% range) of the test bacteria. Also, the swarming motility of LM was differentially affected at sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) concentrations of CFA. In the present study, the ability of CFA to kill and alter the virulence production in human pathogenic bacteria will offer insights into a new scope for the application of these biomaterials in healthcare to effectively treat bacterial infections.
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