The Role of Genetic Polymorphisms in Chronic Pain Patients
AbstractIt is estimated that the total annual financial cost for pain management in the U.S. exceeds 100 billion dollars. However, when indirect costs are included, such as functional disability and reduction in working hours, the cost can reach more than 300 billion dollars. In chronic pain patients, the role of pharmacogenetics is determined by genetic effects on various pain types, as well as the genetic effect on drug safety and efficacy. In this review article, we discuss genetic polymorphisms present in different types of chronic pain, such as fibromyalgia, low back pain, migraine, painful peripheral diabetic neuropathy and trigeminal neuralgia. Furthermore, we discuss the role of CYP450 enzymes involved in metabolism of drugs, which have been used for treatment of chronic pain (amitriptyline, duloxetine, opioids, etc.). We also discuss how pharmacogenetics can be applied towards improving drug efficacy, shortening the time required to achieve therapeutic outcomes, reducing risks of side effects, and reducing medical costs and reliance upon polypharmacy. View Full-Text
Share & Cite This Article
Knezevic, N.N.; Tverdohleb, T.; Knezevic, I.; Candido, K.D. The Role of Genetic Polymorphisms in Chronic Pain Patients. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1707.
Knezevic NN, Tverdohleb T, Knezevic I, Candido KD. The Role of Genetic Polymorphisms in Chronic Pain Patients. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19(6):1707.Chicago/Turabian Style
Knezevic, Nebojsa N.; Tverdohleb, Tatiana; Knezevic, Ivana; Candido, Kenneth D. 2018. "The Role of Genetic Polymorphisms in Chronic Pain Patients." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 19, no. 6: 1707.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.