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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1352; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051352

Transport and Use of Bicarbonate in Plants: Current Knowledge and Challenges Ahead

1
Plant Physiology Lab., Bioscience Faculty, Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona, Spain
2
Department Biologia. Vegetal, Campus Teatinos, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 April 2018 / Revised: 27 April 2018 / Accepted: 28 April 2018 / Published: 3 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma-Membrane Transport)
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Abstract

Bicarbonate plays a fundamental role in the cell pH status in all organisms. In autotrophs, HCO3 may further contribute to carbon concentration mechanisms (CCM). This is especially relevant in the CO2-poor habitats of cyanobacteria, aquatic microalgae, and macrophytes. Photosynthesis of terrestrial plants can also benefit from CCM as evidenced by the evolution of C4 and Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM). The presence of HCO3 in all organisms leads to more questions regarding the mechanisms of uptake and membrane transport in these different biological systems. This review aims to provide an overview of the transport and metabolic processes related to HCO3 in microalgae, macroalgae, seagrasses, and terrestrial plants. HCO3 transport in cyanobacteria and human cells is much better documented and is included for comparison. We further comment on the metabolic roles of HCO3 in plants by focusing on the diversity and functions of carbonic anhydrases and PEP carboxylases as well as on the signaling role of CO2/HCO3 in stomatal guard cells. Plant responses to excess soil HCO3 is briefly addressed. In conclusion, there are still considerable gaps in our knowledge of HCO3 uptake and transport in plants that hamper the development of breeding strategies for both more efficient CCM and better HCO3 tolerance in crop plants. View Full-Text
Keywords: bicarbonate; transporter; metabolism; carbonic anhydrase; carboxylases; carbon concentration mechanisms; algae; seagrass; higher land plants; limestone soil bicarbonate; transporter; metabolism; carbonic anhydrase; carboxylases; carbon concentration mechanisms; algae; seagrass; higher land plants; limestone soil
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Poschenrieder, C.; Fernández, J.A.; Rubio, L.; Pérez, L.; Terés, J.; Barceló, J. Transport and Use of Bicarbonate in Plants: Current Knowledge and Challenges Ahead. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1352.

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