The fundamental function of ribonucleic acids is to transfer genetic information from DNA to protein during translation process, however, this is not the only way connecting active RNA sequences with essential biological processes. Up until now, many RNA subclasses of different size, structure, and biological function were identified. Among them, there are non-coding single-stranded microRNAs (miRNAs). This subclass comprises RNAs of 19–25 nucleotides in length that modulate the activity of well-defined coding RNAs and play a crucial role in many physiological and pathological processes. miRNA genes are located both in exons, introns, and also within non-translated regions. Several miRNAs that are transcribed from the adjacent miRNA genes are called cluster. One of the largest ones is miR-17-92 cluster known as OncomiR-1 due to its strong link to oncogenesis. Six miRNAs from the OncomiR-1 have been shown to play important roles in various physiological cellular processes but also through inhibition of cell death in many cancer-relevant processes. Due to the origin and similarity of the sequence, miR-17-92 cluster and paralogs, miR-106b-25 and miR-106a-363 clusters were defined. Here we discuss the oncogenic function of those miRNA subgroups found in many types of cancers, including brain tumors.
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