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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(3), 731; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19030731

Nanotechnology and Glycosaminoglycans: Paving the Way Forward for Ovarian Cancer Intervention

Wits Advanced Drug Delivery Platform Research Unit, Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, School of Therapeutic Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 7 York Road, Parktown 2193, South Africa
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Received: 19 January 2018 / Revised: 16 February 2018 / Accepted: 23 February 2018 / Published: 4 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ovarian Cancer: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Treatment)
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Abstract

Ovarian cancer (OC) has gained a great deal of attention due to its aggressive proliferative capabilities, high death rates and poor treatment outcomes, rendering the disease the ultimate lethal gynaecological cancer. Nanotechnology provides a promising avenue to combat this malignancy by the niche fabrication of optimally-structured nanomedicines that ensure potent delivery of chemotherapeutics to OC, employing nanocarriers to act as “intelligent” drug delivery vehicles, functionalized with active targeting approaches for precision delivery of chemotherapeutics to overexpressed biomarkers on cancer cells. Recently, much focus has been implemented to optimize these active targeting mechanisms for treatment/diagnostic purposes employing nanocarriers. This two-part article aims to review the latest advances in active target-based OC interventions, where the impact of the newest antibody, aptamer and folate functionalization on OC detection and treatment is discussed in contrast to the limitations of this targeting mechanism. Furthermore, we discuss the latest advances in nanocarrier based drug delivery in OC, highlighting their commercial/clinical viability of these systems beyond the realms of research. Lastly, in the second section of this review, we comprehensively discussed a focus shift in OC targeting from the well-studied OC cells to the vastly neglected extracellular matrix and motivate the potential for glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) as a more focused extracellular molecular target. View Full-Text
Keywords: ovarian cancer; nanomedicine; glycosaminoglycans; antibodies; chemotherapy ovarian cancer; nanomedicine; glycosaminoglycans; antibodies; chemotherapy
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Hoosen, Y.; Pradeep, P.; Kumar, P.; du Toit, L.C.; Choonara, Y.E.; Pillay, V. Nanotechnology and Glycosaminoglycans: Paving the Way Forward for Ovarian Cancer Intervention. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 731.

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