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Open AccessReview

Biosynthesis of Metal Nanoparticles via Microbial Enzymes: A Mechanistic Approach

1
CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology (NCNST), Beijing 100190, China
2
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3
Department of Eastern Medicine and Surgery, Qarshi University, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
4
Department of Pharmacy, University of Malakand, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Chakdara 18000, Pakistan
5
Department of Life sciences, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM), Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
6
Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
7
Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77030, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(12), 4100; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19124100
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 8 December 2018 / Accepted: 17 December 2018 / Published: 18 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Enzymes)
During the last decade, metal nanoparticles (MtNPs) have gained immense popularity due to their characteristic physicochemical properties, as well as containing antimicrobial, anti-cancer, catalyzing, optical, electronic and magnetic properties. Primarily, these MtNPs have been synthesized through different physical and chemical methods. However, these conventional methods have various drawbacks, such as high energy consumption, high cost and the involvement of toxic chemical substances. Microbial flora has provided an alternative platform for the biological synthesis of MtNPs in an eco-friendly and cost effective way. In this article we have focused on various microorganisms used for the synthesis of different MtNPs. We also have elaborated on the intracellular and extracellular mechanisms of MtNP synthesis in microorganisms, and have highlighted their advantages along with their challenges. Moreover, due to several advantages over chemically synthesized nanoparticles, the microbial MtNPs, with their exclusive and dynamic characteristics, can be used in different sectors like the agriculture, medicine, cosmetics and biotechnology industries in the near future. View Full-Text
Keywords: metal nanoparticles; microbial flora; biosynthesis; microbial enzymes; action mechanism metal nanoparticles; microbial flora; biosynthesis; microbial enzymes; action mechanism
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ovais, M.; Khalil, A.T.; Ayaz, M.; Ahmad, I.; Nethi, S.K.; Mukherjee, S. Biosynthesis of Metal Nanoparticles via Microbial Enzymes: A Mechanistic Approach. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 4100.

AMA Style

Ovais M, Khalil AT, Ayaz M, Ahmad I, Nethi SK, Mukherjee S. Biosynthesis of Metal Nanoparticles via Microbial Enzymes: A Mechanistic Approach. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19(12):4100.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ovais, Muhammad; Khalil, Ali T.; Ayaz, Muhammad; Ahmad, Irshad; Nethi, Susheel K.; Mukherjee, Sudip. 2018. "Biosynthesis of Metal Nanoparticles via Microbial Enzymes: A Mechanistic Approach" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 19, no. 12: 4100.

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Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

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