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7-Methylguanosine Modifications in Transfer RNA (tRNA)

Department of Materials Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Bunkyo 3, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577, Japan
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(12), 4080; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19124080
Received: 13 November 2018 / Revised: 5 December 2018 / Accepted: 13 December 2018 / Published: 17 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functions of Transfer RNAs 2.0)
More than 90 different modified nucleosides have been identified in tRNA. Among the tRNA modifications, the 7-methylguanosine (m7G) modification is found widely in eubacteria, eukaryotes, and a few archaea. In most cases, the m7G modification occurs at position 46 in the variable region and is a product of tRNA (m7G46) methyltransferase. The m7G46 modification forms a tertiary base pair with C13-G22, and stabilizes the tRNA structure. A reaction mechanism for eubacterial tRNA m7G methyltransferase has been proposed based on the results of biochemical, bioinformatic, and structural studies. However, an experimentally determined mechanism of methyl-transfer remains to be ascertained. The physiological functions of m7G46 in tRNA have started to be determined over the past decade. For example, tRNA m7G46 or tRNA (m7G46) methyltransferase controls the amount of other tRNA modifications in thermophilic bacteria, contributes to the pathogenic infectivity, and is also associated with several diseases. In this review, information of tRNA m7G modifications and tRNA m7G methyltransferases is summarized and the differences in reaction mechanism between tRNA m7G methyltransferase and rRNA or mRNA m7G methylation enzyme are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: RNA modification; tRNA methyltransferase; tRNA modification; methylase RNA modification; tRNA methyltransferase; tRNA modification; methylase
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Tomikawa, C. 7-Methylguanosine Modifications in Transfer RNA (tRNA). Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 4080.

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