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Multiple Links between HD-Zip Proteins and Hormone Networks

Institute of Molecular Biology and Pathology, National Research Council, P.le A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
Research Centre for Genomics and Bioinformatics, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics (CREA), Via Ardeatina 546, 00178 Rome, Italy
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(12), 4047;
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 6 December 2018 / Accepted: 12 December 2018 / Published: 14 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Auxins and Cytokinins in Plant Development)
HD-Zip proteins are unique to plants, and contain a homeodomain closely linked to a leucine zipper motif, which are involved in dimerization and DNA binding. Based on homology in the HD-Zip domain, gene structure and the presence of additional motifs, HD-Zips are divided into four families, HD-Zip I–IV. Phylogenetic analysis of HD-Zip genes using transcriptomic and genomic datasets from a wide range of plant species indicate that the HD-Zip protein class was already present in green algae. Later, HD-Zips experienced multiple duplication events that promoted neo- and sub-functionalizations. HD-Zip proteins are known to control key developmental and environmental responses, and a growing body of evidence indicates a strict link between members of the HD-Zip II and III families and the auxin machineries. Interactions of HD-Zip proteins with other hormones such as brassinolide and cytokinin have also been described. More recent data indicate that members of different HD-Zip families are directly involved in the regulation of abscisic acid (ABA) homeostasis and signaling. Considering the fundamental role of specific HD-Zip proteins in the control of key developmental pathways and in the cross-talk between auxin and cytokinin, a relevant role of these factors in adjusting plant growth and development to changing environment is emerging. View Full-Text
Keywords: Arabidopsis; developmental pathways; environmental responses; HD-Zip transcription factors; hormones Arabidopsis; developmental pathways; environmental responses; HD-Zip transcription factors; hormones
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sessa, G.; Carabelli, M.; Possenti, M.; Morelli, G.; Ruberti, I. Multiple Links between HD-Zip Proteins and Hormone Networks. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 4047.

AMA Style

Sessa G, Carabelli M, Possenti M, Morelli G, Ruberti I. Multiple Links between HD-Zip Proteins and Hormone Networks. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19(12):4047.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sessa, Giovanna, Monica Carabelli, Marco Possenti, Giorgio Morelli, and Ida Ruberti. 2018. "Multiple Links between HD-Zip Proteins and Hormone Networks" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 19, no. 12: 4047.

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