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Review

Multiple Links between HD-Zip Proteins and Hormone Networks

1
Institute of Molecular Biology and Pathology, National Research Council, P.le A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
2
Research Centre for Genomics and Bioinformatics, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics (CREA), Via Ardeatina 546, 00178 Rome, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(12), 4047; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19124047
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 6 December 2018 / Accepted: 12 December 2018 / Published: 14 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Auxins and Cytokinins in Plant Development)
HD-Zip proteins are unique to plants, and contain a homeodomain closely linked to a leucine zipper motif, which are involved in dimerization and DNA binding. Based on homology in the HD-Zip domain, gene structure and the presence of additional motifs, HD-Zips are divided into four families, HD-Zip I–IV. Phylogenetic analysis of HD-Zip genes using transcriptomic and genomic datasets from a wide range of plant species indicate that the HD-Zip protein class was already present in green algae. Later, HD-Zips experienced multiple duplication events that promoted neo- and sub-functionalizations. HD-Zip proteins are known to control key developmental and environmental responses, and a growing body of evidence indicates a strict link between members of the HD-Zip II and III families and the auxin machineries. Interactions of HD-Zip proteins with other hormones such as brassinolide and cytokinin have also been described. More recent data indicate that members of different HD-Zip families are directly involved in the regulation of abscisic acid (ABA) homeostasis and signaling. Considering the fundamental role of specific HD-Zip proteins in the control of key developmental pathways and in the cross-talk between auxin and cytokinin, a relevant role of these factors in adjusting plant growth and development to changing environment is emerging. View Full-Text
Keywords: Arabidopsis; developmental pathways; environmental responses; HD-Zip transcription factors; hormones Arabidopsis; developmental pathways; environmental responses; HD-Zip transcription factors; hormones
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sessa, G.; Carabelli, M.; Possenti, M.; Morelli, G.; Ruberti, I. Multiple Links between HD-Zip Proteins and Hormone Networks. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 4047. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19124047

AMA Style

Sessa G, Carabelli M, Possenti M, Morelli G, Ruberti I. Multiple Links between HD-Zip Proteins and Hormone Networks. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19(12):4047. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19124047

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sessa, Giovanna, Monica Carabelli, Marco Possenti, Giorgio Morelli, and Ida Ruberti. 2018. "Multiple Links between HD-Zip Proteins and Hormone Networks" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 19, no. 12: 4047. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19124047

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