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Supraoptimal Cytokinin Content Inhibits Rice Seminal Root Growth by Reducing Root Meristem Size and Cell Length via Increased Ethylene Content

MOA Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in the Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River, College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430062, China
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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(12), 4051; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19124051
Received: 30 October 2018 / Revised: 30 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 December 2018 / Published: 14 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Auxins and Cytokinins in Plant Development)
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Abstract

Cytokinins (CKs), a class of phytohormone, regulate root growth in a dose-dependent manner. A certain threshold content of CK is required for rapid root growth, but supraoptimal CK content inhibits root growth, and the mechanism of this inhibition remains unclear in rice. In this study, treatments of lovastatin (an inhibitor of CK biosynthesis) and kinetin (KT; a synthetic CK) were found to inhibit rice seminal root growth in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that endogenous CK content is optimal for rapid growth of the seminal root in rice. KT treatment strongly increased ethylene level by upregulating the transcription of ethylene biosynthesis genes. Ethylene produced in response to exogenous KT inhibited rice seminal root growth by reducing meristem size via upregulation of OsIAA3 transcription and reduced cell length by downregulating transcription of cell elongation-related genes. Moreover, the effects of KT treatment on rice seminal root growth, root meristem size and cell length were rescued by treatment with aminoethoxyvinylglycine (an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis), which restored ethylene level and transcription levels of OsIAA3 and cell elongation-related genes. Supraoptimal CK content increases ethylene level by promoting ethylene biosynthesis, which in turn inhibits rice seminal root growth by reducing root meristem size and cell length. View Full-Text
Keywords: cytokinin; ethylene; rice; seminal root growth; meristem size; cell elongation cytokinin; ethylene; rice; seminal root growth; meristem size; cell elongation
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Zou, X.; Shao, J.; Wang, Q.; Chen, P.; Zhu, Y.; Yin, C. Supraoptimal Cytokinin Content Inhibits Rice Seminal Root Growth by Reducing Root Meristem Size and Cell Length via Increased Ethylene Content. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 4051.

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