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Article

Interplay of Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load, and Dietary Antioxidant Capacity with Insulin Resistance in Subjects with a Cardiometabolic Risk Profile

1
Department of Nutrition, Food Science and Physiology and Centre for Nutrition Research, University of Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
2
Biomedical Research Centre Network in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBERobn), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), 28029 Madrid, Spain
3
Navarra Institute for Health Research (IdiSNA), 31008 Pamplona, Spain
4
Clinical Chemistry Department, University Clinic of Navarra, University of Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
5
Radiodiagnostic Department, University Clinic of Navarra, University of Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
6
Liver Unit, University Clinic of Navarra, University of Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
7
Research Group on Community Nutrition and Oxidative Stress, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma, Spain
8
Precision Nutrition and Cardiometabolic Health Department, Madrid Institute of Advanced Studies (IMDEA Food), 28049 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(11), 3662; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113662
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 12 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 November 2018 / Published: 20 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular Disease 2018)
Background: Dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC), glycemic index (GI), and glycemic load (GL) are accepted indicators of diet quality, which have an effect on diet–disease relationships. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential associations of dietary TAC, GI, and GL with variables related to nutritive status and insulin resistance (IR) risk in cardiometabolic subjects. Methods: A total of 112 overweight or obese adults (age: 50.8 ± 9 years old) were included in the trial. Dietary intake was assessed by a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), which was also used to calculate the dietary TAC, GI, and GL. Anthropometrics, blood pressure, body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), glycemic and lipid profiles, C-reactive protein (CRP), as well as fatty liver quantification by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were assessed. Results: Subjects with higher values of TAC had significantly lower circulating insulin concentration and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Participants with higher values of HOMA-IR showed significantly higher GI and GL. Correlation analyses showed relevant inverse associations of GI and GL with TAC. A regression model evidenced a relationship of HOMA-IR with TAC, GI, and GL. Conclusion: This data reinforces the concept that dietary TAC, GI, and GL are potential markers of diet quality, which have an impact on the susceptible population with a cardiometabolic risk profile. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidants; glucose; diet; diabetes; precision nutrition antioxidants; glucose; diet; diabetes; precision nutrition
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MDPI and ACS Style

Galarregui, C.; Zulet, M.Á.; Cantero, I.; Marín-Alejandre, B.A.; Monreal, J.I.; Elorz, M.; Benito-Boillos, A.; Herrero, J.I.; Tur, J.A.; Abete, I.; Martínez, J.A. Interplay of Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load, and Dietary Antioxidant Capacity with Insulin Resistance in Subjects with a Cardiometabolic Risk Profile. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 3662. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113662

AMA Style

Galarregui C, Zulet MÁ, Cantero I, Marín-Alejandre BA, Monreal JI, Elorz M, Benito-Boillos A, Herrero JI, Tur JA, Abete I, Martínez JA. Interplay of Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load, and Dietary Antioxidant Capacity with Insulin Resistance in Subjects with a Cardiometabolic Risk Profile. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19(11):3662. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113662

Chicago/Turabian Style

Galarregui, Cristina, María Ángeles Zulet, Irene Cantero, Bertha Araceli Marín-Alejandre, José Ignacio Monreal, Mariana Elorz, Alberto Benito-Boillos, José Ignacio Herrero, Josep Antoni Tur, Itziar Abete, and José Alfredo Martínez. 2018. "Interplay of Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load, and Dietary Antioxidant Capacity with Insulin Resistance in Subjects with a Cardiometabolic Risk Profile" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 19, no. 11: 3662. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113662

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