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Open AccessReview

Programming of Vascular Dysfunction in the Intrauterine Milieu of Diabetic Pregnancies

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Libin Cardiovascular Institute of Alberta, Calgary, AB T2N 4N1, Canada
Children’s Hospital Research Institute; University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 4N1, Canada
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo 11562, Egypt
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(11), 3665;
Received: 24 October 2018 / Revised: 14 November 2018 / Accepted: 16 November 2018 / Published: 20 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Factors and Molecular Mechanisms of Gestational Diabetes)
With the rising global tide of obesity, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) burgeoned into one of the most common antenatal disorders worldwide. Macrosomic babies born to diabetic mothers are more likely to develop risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) before they reach adulthood. Rodent studies in offspring born to hyperglycemic pregnancies show vascular dysfunction characterized by impaired nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasodilation and increased production of contractile prostanoids by cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). Vascular dysfunction is a key pathogenic event in the progression of diabetes-related vascular disease, primarily attributable to glucotoxicity. Therefore, glucose-induced vascular injury may stem directly from the hyperglycemic intrauterine environment of GDM pregnancy, as evinced by studies showing endothelial activation and inflammation at birth or in childhood in offspring born to GDM mothers. This review discusses potential mechanisms by which intrauterine hyperglycemia programs dysfunction in the developing vasculature. View Full-Text
Keywords: gestational diabetes; endothelial dysfunction; developmental programming gestational diabetes; endothelial dysfunction; developmental programming
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sallam, N.A.; Palmgren, V.A.C.; Singh, R.D.; John, C.M.; Thompson, J.A. Programming of Vascular Dysfunction in the Intrauterine Milieu of Diabetic Pregnancies. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 3665.

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