Next Article in Journal
Synthesis and Transformation of (-)-Isopulegol-Based Chiral β-Aminolactones and β-Aminoamides
Next Article in Special Issue
Aging, Melatonin, and the Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Networks
Previous Article in Journal
Ginkgolic Acid Rescues Lens Epithelial Cells from Injury Caused by Redox Regulated-Aberrant Sumoylation Signaling by Reviving Prdx6 and Sp1 Expression and Activities
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(11), 3521;

Ultrastructural and Molecular Analysis of Ribose-Induced Glycated Reconstructed Human Skin

Institute of Pharmacy (Pharmacology & Toxicology), Freie Universität Berlin, Königin-Luise-Str. 2+4, 14195 Berlin, Germany
Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Freie Universität Berlin, Koserstr. 20, 14195 Berlin, Germany
Faculty of Pharmacy, Charles University, Akademika Heyrovského 1203, 50005 Hradec Králové, Czech Republic
Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustr. 3, 14195 Berlin, Germany; Germany
Collegium Medicum Berlin, Luisenstr. 54, 10117 Berlin, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Present address: UNESP—Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho”, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Rodovia Araraquara Jaú, Km 01-s/n, 14800-903 Araraquara, Brazil.
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 2 November 2018 / Accepted: 4 November 2018 / Published: 8 November 2018
PDF [5632 KB, uploaded 8 November 2018]


Aging depicts one of the major challenges in pharmacology owing to its complexity and heterogeneity. Thereby, advanced glycated end-products modify extracellular matrix proteins, but the consequences on the skin barrier function remain heavily understudied. Herein, we utilized transmission electron microscopy for the ultrastructural analysis of ribose-induced glycated reconstructed human skin (RHS). Molecular and functional insights substantiated the ultrastructural characterization and proved the relevance of glycated RHS beyond skin aging. In particular, electron microscopy mapped the accumulation and altered spatial orientation of fibrils and filaments in the dermal compartment of glycated RHS. Moreover, the epidermal basement membrane appeared thicker in glycated than in non-glycated RHS, but electron microscopy identified longitudinal clusters of the finest collagen fibrils instead of real thickening. The stratum granulosum contained more cell layers, the morphology of keratohyalin granules decidedly differed, and the stratum corneum lipid order increased in ribose-induced glycated RHS, while the skin barrier function was almost not affected. In conclusion, dermal advanced glycated end-products markedly changed the epidermal morphology, underlining the importance of matrix–cell interactions. The phenotype of ribose-induced glycated RHS emulated aged skin in the dermis, while the two to three times increased thickness of the stratum granulosum resembled poorer cornification. View Full-Text
Keywords: advanced glycated end products; aging; diabetes; electron microscopy; nanomedicine; ribose; reconstructed human skin; skin absorption advanced glycated end products; aging; diabetes; electron microscopy; nanomedicine; ribose; reconstructed human skin; skin absorption

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Balansin Rigon, R.; Kaessmeyer, S.; Wolff, C.; Hausmann, C.; Zhang, N.; Sochorová, M.; Kováčik, A.; Haag, R.; Vávrová, K.; Ulrich, M.; Schäfer-Korting, M.; Zoschke, C. Ultrastructural and Molecular Analysis of Ribose-Induced Glycated Reconstructed Human Skin. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 3521.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top