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Article

Serratia liquefaciens KM4 Improves Salt Stress Tolerance in Maize by Regulating Redox Potential, Ion Homeostasis, Leaf Gas Exchange and Stress-Related Gene Expression

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Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta 31527, Egypt
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UMR CNRS 8256 (B2A), IBPS, Université Paris VI, 75005 Paris, France
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Botany and Microbiology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
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Timber Trees Research Department, Sabahia Horticulture Research Station, Horticulture Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Alexandria 21526, Egypt
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Biological Sciences Department, Faculty of Science, University of Jeddah, Jeddah 21577, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Biology, Xavier University, Cincinnati, OH 45207, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(11), 3310; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113310
Received: 12 September 2018 / Revised: 2 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 October 2018 / Published: 24 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Plant Sciences)
High salinity mitigates crop productivity and quality. Plant growth-promoting soil rhizobacteria (PGPR) improve plant growth and abiotic stress tolerance via mediating various physiological and molecular mechanisms. This study investigated the effects of the PGPR strain Serratia liquefaciens KM4 on the growth and physiological and molecular responsiveness of maize (Zea mays L.) plants under salinity stress (0, 80, and 160 mM NaCl). High salinity significantly reduced plant growth and biomass production, nutrient uptake, leaf relative water content, pigment content, leaf gas exchange attributes, and total flavonoid and phenolic contents in maize. However, osmolyte content (e.g., soluble proteins, proline, and free amino acids), oxidative stress markers, and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants levels were increased in maize under high salinity. On the other hand, Serratia liquefaciens KM4 inoculation significantly reduced oxidative stress markers, but increased the maize growth and biomass production along with better leaf gas exchange, osmoregulation, antioxidant defense systems, and nutrient uptake under salt stress. Moreover, it was found that all these improvements were accompanied with the upregulation of stress-related genes (APX, CAT, SOD, RBCS, RBCL, H+-PPase, HKT1, and NHX1), and downregulation of the key gene in ABA biosynthesis (NCED). Taken together, the results demonstrate the beneficial role of Serratia liquefaciens KM4 in improving plant growth and salt stress tolerance in maize by regulating ion homeostasis, redox potential, leaf gas exchange, and stress-related genes expression. View Full-Text
Keywords: Serratia liquefaciens KM4; maize; salt tolerance; antioxidants; gene expression Serratia liquefaciens KM4; maize; salt tolerance; antioxidants; gene expression
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MDPI and ACS Style

El-Esawi, M.A.; Alaraidh, I.A.; Alsahli, A.A.; Alzahrani, S.M.; Ali, H.M.; Alayafi, A.A.; Ahmad, M. Serratia liquefaciens KM4 Improves Salt Stress Tolerance in Maize by Regulating Redox Potential, Ion Homeostasis, Leaf Gas Exchange and Stress-Related Gene Expression. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 3310. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113310

AMA Style

El-Esawi MA, Alaraidh IA, Alsahli AA, Alzahrani SM, Ali HM, Alayafi AA, Ahmad M. Serratia liquefaciens KM4 Improves Salt Stress Tolerance in Maize by Regulating Redox Potential, Ion Homeostasis, Leaf Gas Exchange and Stress-Related Gene Expression. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19(11):3310. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113310

Chicago/Turabian Style

El-Esawi, Mohamed A., Ibrahim A. Alaraidh, Abdulaziz A. Alsahli, Saud M. Alzahrani, Hayssam M. Ali, Aisha A. Alayafi, and Margaret Ahmad. 2018. "Serratia liquefaciens KM4 Improves Salt Stress Tolerance in Maize by Regulating Redox Potential, Ion Homeostasis, Leaf Gas Exchange and Stress-Related Gene Expression" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 19, no. 11: 3310. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113310

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