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Endometrial Stem Cell Markers: Current Concepts and Unresolved Questions

1
Liverpool Women’s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool L8 7SS, UK
2
Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L8 7SS, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 3240; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19103240
Received: 2 August 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research of Endometrial Pathophysiology)
The human endometrium is a highly regenerative organ undergoing over 400 cycles of shedding and regeneration over a woman’s lifetime. Menstrual shedding and the subsequent repair of the functional layer of the endometrium is a process unique to humans and higher-order primates. This massive regenerative capacity is thought to have a stem cell basis, with human endometrial stromal stem cells having already been extensively studied. Studies on endometrial epithelial stem cells are sparse, and the current belief is that the endometrial epithelial stem cells reside in the terminal ends of the basalis glands at the endometrial/myometrial interface. Since almost all endometrial pathologies are thought to originate from aberrations in stem cells that regularly regenerate the functionalis layer, expansion of our current understanding of stem cells is necessary in order for curative treatment strategies to be developed. This review critically appraises the postulated markers in order to identify endometrial stem cells. It also examines the current evidence supporting the existence of epithelial stem cells in the human endometrium that are likely to be involved both in glandular regeneration and in the pathogenesis of endometrial proliferative diseases such as endometriosis and endometrial cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: endometrium; adult stem cells; endometrial regeneration; stem cell markers; endometriosis; endometrial cancer endometrium; adult stem cells; endometrial regeneration; stem cell markers; endometriosis; endometrial cancer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tempest, N.; Maclean, A.; Hapangama, D.K. Endometrial Stem Cell Markers: Current Concepts and Unresolved Questions. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 3240. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19103240

AMA Style

Tempest N, Maclean A, Hapangama DK. Endometrial Stem Cell Markers: Current Concepts and Unresolved Questions. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19(10):3240. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19103240

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tempest, Nicola; Maclean, Alison; Hapangama, Dharani K. 2018. "Endometrial Stem Cell Markers: Current Concepts and Unresolved Questions" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 19, no. 10: 3240. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19103240

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