Next Article in Journal
The Influence of EGFR Inactivation on the Radiation Response in High Grade Glioma
Next Article in Special Issue
Different Achilles Tendon Pathologies Show Distinct Histological and Molecular Characteristics
Previous Article in Journal
Evaluation of a New Survivin ELISA and UBC® Rapid for the Detection of Bladder Cancer in Urine
Previous Article in Special Issue
Comparative Analysis of Different Platelet Lysates and Platelet Rich Preparations to Stimulate Tendon Cell Biology: An In Vitro Study
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Mustn1: A Developmentally Regulated Pan-Musculoskeletal Cell Marker and Regulatory Gene

Department of Life Sciences, New York Institute of Technology, Old Westbury, NY 11568-8000, USA
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(1), 206;
Received: 4 December 2017 / Revised: 26 December 2017 / Accepted: 6 January 2018 / Published: 12 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Basis of Musculoskeletal Regeneration)
PDF [1986 KB, uploaded 12 January 2018]


The Mustn1 gene encodes a small nuclear protein (~9.6 kDa) that does not belong to any known family. Its genomic organization consists of three exons interspersed by two introns and it is highly homologous across vertebrate species. Promoter analyses revealed that its expression is regulated by the AP family of transcription factors, especially c-Fos, Fra-2 and JunD. Mustn1 is predominantly expressed in the major tissues of the musculoskeletal system: bone, cartilage, skeletal muscle and tendon. Its expression has been associated with normal embryonic development, postnatal growth, exercise, and regeneration of bone and skeletal muscle. Moreover, its expression has also been detected in various musculoskeletal pathologies, including arthritis, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, other skeletal muscle myopathies, clubfoot and diabetes associated muscle pathology. In vitro and in vivo functional perturbation revealed that Mustn1 is a key regulatory molecule in myogenic and chondrogenic lineages. This comprehensive review summarizes our current knowledge of Mustn1 and proposes that it is a new developmentally regulated pan-musculoskeletal marker as well as a key regulatory protein for cell differentiation and tissue growth. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mustn1; musculoskeletal; marker; cartilage; skeletal muscle; bone; tendon Mustn1; musculoskeletal; marker; cartilage; skeletal muscle; bone; tendon

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Hadjiargyrou, M. Mustn1: A Developmentally Regulated Pan-Musculoskeletal Cell Marker and Regulatory Gene. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 206.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top