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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19010002

Exploring the Mechanisms of Electroacupuncture-Induced Analgesia through RNA Sequencing of the Periaqueductal Gray

1
College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
2
College of Physiology and Pharmacology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 October 2017 / Revised: 15 December 2017 / Accepted: 17 December 2017 / Published: 25 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3770 KB, uploaded 25 December 2017]   |  

Abstract

Electroacupuncture (EA) can relieve various pains. However, its mechanism in terms of the transcriptome is still not well-known. To explore the full profile of EA-induced molecular modification in the central nerve system, three twins of goats were selected for a match-paired experiment: EA stimulation (60 Hz, 30 min) and none-EA (control). Goats in the EA group showed an increased (p < 0.05) nociceptive threshold compared with the control goats. Experimental goats were sacrificed at 4 h of the experiment, and the periaqueductal grays were harvested for RNA sequencing. As a result, 2651 differentially expressed genes (1803 up-regulated and 848 down-regulated genes) were found and enriched in 30 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways and 149 gene ontology terms. EA-regulated five neuropeptide genes (proenkephalin, proopiomelanocortin, preprodynorphin, diazepam-binding inhibitor and proprotein convertase 1 inhibitor) were validated with quantitative PCR. Furthermore, up-regulated glutamate receptors, glutamate transporters, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, GABA transporters, synaptotagmins or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) genes might contribute to EA-induced analgesia through regulating the glutamatergic synapse, GABAergic synapse, MAPKs, ribosome or ubiquitin-proteasome pathways. Our findings reveal a full profile of molecular modification in response to EA and provide a solid experimental framework for exploring the mechanisms underlying EA-induced analgesia. View Full-Text
Keywords: transcriptome; electroacupuncture analgesia; RNA sequencing; the periaqueductal gray; goat transcriptome; electroacupuncture analgesia; RNA sequencing; the periaqueductal gray; goat
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Hu, M.-L.; Zhu, H.-M.; Zhang, Q.-L.; Liu, J.-J.; Ding, Y.; Zhong, J.-M.; Vodyanoy, V.; Ding, M.-X. Exploring the Mechanisms of Electroacupuncture-Induced Analgesia through RNA Sequencing of the Periaqueductal Gray. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2.

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