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Biofilms in Endodontics—Current Status and Future Directions

Discipline of Endodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Pok Fu Lam, Hong Kong, China
Department of Endodontics, Benemerita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Puebla 72000, Mexico
Department of Postgraduate Endodontics, University of Tlaxcala, Private practice, Puebla 72420, Mexico
Faculty of Dentistry, International Medical University, 126, Jln Jalil Perkasa 19, Bukit Jalil, 57000 Bukit Jalil, Malaysia
Medical Microbiology and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Interdisciplinary Biotechnology Unit, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh 202001, India
School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pok Fu Lam, Hong Kong, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(8), 1748;
Received: 20 July 2017 / Revised: 31 July 2017 / Accepted: 8 August 2017 / Published: 11 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofilm Formation)
Microbiota are found in highly organized and complex entities, known as biofilms, the characteristics of which are fundamentally different from microbes in planktonic suspensions. Root canal infections are biofilm mediated. The complexity and variability of the root canal system, together with the multi-species nature of biofilms, make disinfection of this system extremely challenging. Microbial persistence appears to be the most important factor for failure of root canal treatment and this could further have an impact on pain and quality of life. Biofilm removal is accomplished by a chemo-mechanical process, using specific instruments and disinfecting chemicals in the form of irrigants and/or intracanal medicaments. Endodontic research has focused on the characterization of root canal biofilms and the clinical methods to disrupt the biofilms in addition to achieving microbial killing. In this narrative review, we discuss the role of microbial biofilms in endodontics and review the literature on the role of root canal disinfectants and disinfectant-activating methods on biofilm removal. View Full-Text
Keywords: bacteria; disinfection; extracellular polysaccharide; irrigation; root canal; review bacteria; disinfection; extracellular polysaccharide; irrigation; root canal; review
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MDPI and ACS Style

Neelakantan, P.; Romero, M.; Vera, J.; Daood, U.; Khan, A.U.; Yan, A.; Cheung, G.S.P. Biofilms in Endodontics—Current Status and Future Directions. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1748.

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