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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(8), 1643;

Immuno-Modulatory and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Dihydrogracilin A, a Terpene Derived from the Marine Sponge Dendrilla membranosa

Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry “Scuola Medica Salernitana”, University of Salerno, Via Salvatore Allende, 84081 Baronissi Salerno, Italy
Department of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 84084 Fisciano, Salerno, Italy
Department of Biology and Cellular and Molecular Pathology, University of Naples Federico II, Via Pansini, 80131 Naples, Italy
Institute of Endocrinology and Experimental Oncology, IEOS CNR, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy
Bio-Organic Chemistry Unit, Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry-CNR, Via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli, 80131 Naples; Italy, (A.F.)
Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste, 34127 Trieste, Italy
CORPOREA-Fondazione Idis-Città della Scienza, via Coroglio 104 e 57, 80124 Naples, Italy
These authors contributed equally to this work.
M.B. is considered co-last author.
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 May 2017 / Revised: 11 June 2017 / Accepted: 23 June 2017 / Published: 28 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activity of Natural Secondary Metabolite Products)
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We assessed the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of 9,11-dihydrogracilin A (DHG), a molecule derived from the Antarctic marine sponge Dendrilla membranosa. We used in vitro and in vivo approaches to establish DHG properties. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and human keratinocytes cell line (HaCaT cells) were used as in vitro system, whereas a model of murine cutaneous irritation was adopted for in vivo studies. We observed that DHG reduces dose dependently the proliferative response and viability of mitogen stimulated PBMC. In addition, DHG induces apoptosis as revealed by AnnexinV staining and downregulates the phosphorylation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) and extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK) at late time points. These effects were accompanied by down-regulation of interleukin 6 (IL-6) production, slight decrease of IL-10 and no inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) secretion. To assess potential properties of DHG in epidermal inflammation we used HaCaT cells; this compound reduces cell growth, viability and migration. Finally, we adopted for the in vivo study the croton oil-induced ear dermatitis murine model of inflammation. Of note, topical use of DHG significantly decreased mouse ear edema. These results suggest that DHG exerts anti-inflammatory effects and its anti-edema activity in vivo strongly supports its potential therapeutic application in inflammatory cutaneous diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: marine sponge; natural compound; inflammation; lymphocytes marine sponge; natural compound; inflammation; lymphocytes

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Ciaglia, E.; Malfitano, A.M.; Laezza, C.; Fontana, A.; Nuzzo, G.; Cutignano, A.; Abate, M.; Pelin, M.; Sosa, S.; Bifulco, M.; Gazzerro, P. Immuno-Modulatory and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Dihydrogracilin A, a Terpene Derived from the Marine Sponge Dendrilla membranosa. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1643.

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