Next Article in Journal
High Salt Tolerance of a Bradyrhizobium Strain and Its Promotion of the Growth of Stylosanthes guianensis
Next Article in Special Issue
Comparative In Vitro Controlled Release Studies on the Chronobiotic Hormone Melatonin from Cyclodextrins-Containing Matrices and Cyclodextrin: Melatonin Complexes
Previous Article in Journal
Allelic Complexity in Long QT Syndrome: A Family-Case Study
Previous Article in Special Issue
Melatonin Decreases Glucose Metabolism in Prostate Cancer Cells: A 13C Stable Isotope-Resolved Metabolomic Study
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(8), 1637;

Effects of Melatonin on Early Pregnancy in Mouse: Involving the Regulation of StAR, Cyp11a1, and Ihh Expression

College of Wildlife Resources, Northeast Forestry University, No. 26, Hexing Road, Xiangfang District, Harbin 150036, China
National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics and Breeding of the Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing Key Laboratory for Animal Genetic Improvement, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 April 2017 / Revised: 18 July 2017 / Accepted: 21 July 2017 / Published: 27 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Melatonin and Its Analogues: Experimental and Clinical Aspects)
Full-Text   |   PDF [5916 KB, uploaded 27 July 2017]   |  


To test whether melatonin plays an important role in the process of early pregnancy, melatonin was given in drinking water to pregnant mice at different gestation stages. These included mice who were given melatonin 14 days prior to their successful mating (confirmed by vaginal plug) (Group A), after successful mating (Group B), and 14 days prior to and until after successful mating (Group C). Melatonin administration significantly enhanced serum as well as ovarian melatonin levels in the mice. It was observed that melatonin did not affect the natural estrous of mice. On day 0.5 of gestation (D0.5), melatonin not only elevated progesterone (P) secretion, but also upregulated expressions of StAR and Cyp11a1, the two marker genes of corpus luteum in ovaries (p < 0.05). Group A had a significantly lower estradiol (E2) secretion and a higher number of implantation sites as well as litter size than controls (p < 0.05) and also had an increased Ihh expression in endometrium of D7.5 gestation. Melatonin treatment after successful mating improved the progesterone (P) secretion at D7.5 of gestation (p < 0.05) and significantly induced leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) expression (p < 0.05). Our study indicates that melatonin treatment up-regulated the genes involved in pregnenolone synthesis in ovary and Ihh expression in uterine endometrium. The mechanisms of melatonin to improve embryo implantation related to their actions on promoting the development of corpus luteum before gestation and helping to specify uterine receptivity in early pregnant mice. View Full-Text
Keywords: melatonin; mice; early pregnancy; corpus luteum; E2; P melatonin; mice; early pregnancy; corpus luteum; E2; P

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Guan, S.; Xie, L.; Ma, T.; Lv, D.; Jing, W.; Tian, X.; Song, Y.; Liu, Z.; Xiao, X.; Liu, G. Effects of Melatonin on Early Pregnancy in Mouse: Involving the Regulation of StAR, Cyp11a1, and Ihh Expression. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1637.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top