Next Article in Journal
The Glyoxalase System and Methylglyoxal-Derived Carbonyl Stress in Sepsis: Glycotoxic Aspects of Sepsis Pathophysiology
Next Article in Special Issue
Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Irisin, Mediator of Physical Activity, Are Connected with TLR4/MyD88 Signaling Pathway Activation
Previous Article in Journal
Plausible Roles for RAGE in Conditions Exacerbated by Direct and Indirect (Secondhand) Smoke Exposure
Previous Article in Special Issue
Elderberry and Elderflower Extracts, Phenolic Compounds, and Metabolites and Their Effect on Complement, RAW 264.7 Macrophages and Dendritic Cells
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 653;

In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory and Cytotoxic Effects of Aqueous Extracts from the Edible Sea Anemones Anemonia sulcata and Actinia equina

REQUIMTE/LAQV, Laboratório de Farmacognosia, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, no. 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
REQUIMTE/LAQV, Departamento de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 1021/1055, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David Arráez-Román
Received: 31 October 2016 / Revised: 9 March 2017 / Accepted: 14 March 2017 / Published: 17 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2245 KB, uploaded 17 March 2017]   |  


Marine invertebrates have been attracting the attention of researchers for their application in nutrition, agriculture, and the pharmaceutical industry, among others. Concerning sea anemones (Cnidaria), little is known regarding their metabolic profiles and potential value as a source of pharmacologically-active agents. In this work, the chemical profiles of two species of sea anemones Actinia equina and Anemonia sulcata, were studied by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) and its impact upon immune and gastric cells was evaluated. In both species, the methylpyridinium alkaloid homarine was the major compound in aqueous extracts. The extracts were effective in reducing lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced levels of nitric oxide (NO) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a macrophage model of inflammation. Both the extracts and the alkaloid homarine were effective in inhibiting phospholipase A2 (PLA2), a pivotal enzyme in the initial steps of the inflammatory cascade. In order to mimic the oral consumption of these extracts; their effect upon human gastric cells was evaluated. While no caspase-9 activation was detected, the fact that the endoplasmic reticulum-resident caspase-4, and also caspase-3, were activated points to a non-classical mechanism of apoptosis in human gastric cells. This work provides new insights on the toxicity and biological potential of sea anemones increasingly present in human nutrition. View Full-Text
Keywords: inflammation; sea anemones; gastric cells; macrophages; homarine; cytotoxicity inflammation; sea anemones; gastric cells; macrophages; homarine; cytotoxicity

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Silva, T.C.; de Andrade, P.B.; Paiva-Martins, F.; Valentão, P.; Pereira, D.M. In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory and Cytotoxic Effects of Aqueous Extracts from the Edible Sea Anemones Anemonia sulcata and Actinia equina. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 653.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top