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Nrf2, the Master Regulator of Anti-Oxidative Responses

Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME, Project Group Translational Medicine & Pharmacology TMP, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt, Germany
Institute of Biochemistry I-Pathobiochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2772;
Received: 17 November 2017 / Revised: 11 December 2017 / Accepted: 16 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nrf2 in Redox Signaling: A Double Edged Sword)
PDF [3442 KB, uploaded 20 December 2017]


Tight regulation of inflammation is very important to guarantee a balanced immune response without developing chronic inflammation. One of the major mediators of the resolution of inflammation is the transcription factor: the nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 (Nrf2). Stabilized following oxidative stress, Nrf2 induces the expression of antioxidants as well as cytoprotective genes, which provoke an anti-inflammatory expression profile, and is crucial for the initiation of healing. In view of this fundamental modulatory role, it is clear that both hyper- or hypoactivation of Nrf2 contribute to the onset of chronic diseases. Understanding the tight regulation of Nrf2 expression/activation and its interaction with signaling pathways, known to affect inflammatory processes, will facilitate development of therapeutic approaches to prevent Nrf2 dysregulation and ameliorate chronic inflammatory diseases. We discuss in this review the principle mechanisms of Nrf2 regulation with a focus on inflammation and autophagy, extending the role of dysregulated Nrf2 to chronic diseases and tumor development. View Full-Text
Keywords: Nrf2; electrophiles; reactive oxygen species; transcription factor; antioxidants Nrf2; electrophiles; reactive oxygen species; transcription factor; antioxidants

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Vomund, S.; Schäfer, A.; Parnham, M.J.; Brüne, B.; Von Knethen, A. Nrf2, the Master Regulator of Anti-Oxidative Responses. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2772.

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